what is information and communication technology | what is ict | information technology management



dear students today we will learn about ICT we will read about introduction of ICT basic concepts of ICT role of ICT in society ICT applications and ICT in teaching and learning now we will explain the term ICT ICT is an abbreviation of the term information and communication technology it generally refers to use of new or modern technologies to aid in analysis storage processing as well as communication of information in order to fully understand the concepts of ICT first of all it is important to know the meaning of three important terms information communication and Technology individually which are described below information information is generally referred to data which can be recorded organized and interpreted within a context in order to convey meaning for example nhadra national database and registration authority is an organization which collects data from people this data is basically organized or compiled with the help of computer to produce the computerized national identity cards which hold the complete information of everyone communication communication is basically the transfer of ideas and messages among persons through different systems devices or media such as computer internet cell phone telephone television or radio a figure named as communication model shows the above basic concepts in a clear way technology technology is generally defined as making modification adaptation and usage of tools techniques systems or machines for the purpose of solving problems or achieving goals in a less time period after defining the term information and communication technology it will be good to briefly describe the basic concept of ICT ICT is just like an umbrella comprising of different communication devices or applications such as radio television satellite systems internet cellular phones or computer ICT sector is basically considered to include the manufacturing as well as assembling of various ICT equipment a variety of numerous service activities ranging from telecommunication to software development a figure named as ICT a combination of different communication devices shows the above basic concept in a clear way ICT basically refers to those technologies which provide access to the information by means of telecommunication it is very similar to IT information technology but it focuses mainly on different communication technologies internet and cell phones are the best examples of communication technologies and also the best communication mediums today Internet provides a lot of facilities to the users through various ways such as email social networking websites for example Facebook Twitter or LinkedIn or numerous search engines like Google and Google Scholar similarly the cell phones are widely famous amongst people of all ages and have become a basic need of everyone with the help of this interactive information and communication technology people can communicate with each other at anytime easily through call instant messaging is a very safe way of communication a figure named ICT and communication technologies figure 3 shows this concept easily role of ICT in society after defining basic concepts of ICT it will become very easy to describe the role of ICT in society the importance and positive influences of information and communication technologies can be easily seen in various areas such as education business training health environment employment or government a figure named as importance of ICT shows its importance in various areas the role of ICT in society is further explained with the help of various ICT applications the ICT applications enable people to communicate with each other by using computer internet and cell phones computer and internet computer is the most significant and major application of ICT which has gained an immense importance in our society a figure named as computer and its accessories figure 5 shows the various components of a computer with the help of computer and Internet people can communicate with each other through various ways this improves their interaction with the whole world in this way they face different experiences which can be beneficial for them the Internet has become the basic need for everyone in the society following are a few common advantages online sale and purchase source of entertainment like movies and music software's and documents downloading documents sharing with each other through internet searching through various search engines like Google or Yahoo people's communication through email skype or social networking websites Facebook LinkedIn or Twitter cell phone cell phone is another well-known ICT device which allows users to communicate with each other it provides many facilities to the users such as calling instant messaging listening to music and watching videos playing games using internet maintaining phonebook and many more a figure named as simple phone and multimedia phone figure six is shown below at the end we will see the role of ICT in teaching and learning information and communication technologies have put a lot of positive effects in educational areas where teaching and learning are most important aspects overall ICT enables teachers as well as learners to teach well learn well present well work efficiently share ideas easily solve different problems easily gain precise knowledge achieve goals in less time period a figure named as classroom teaching with multimedia figure six is shown below so it can be said that ICT can be used as an aid to computer teaching as well as learning dear students today we have learnt about ICT its basic concept its role in society and its application now this program comes to its end inshaallah incoming program we will learn something new thank you you assalamu alaikum dear students today we will learn about overview an organization of computer in this unit we will learn about history and development of computer generations of computers types of computers applications of computers parts of computers and storage unit to overview an organization of computer after completion of this unit you will be able to describe history and development of computer distinguished different generations of computer classify different types of computers describe types of computers have knowledge about applications of computers have knowledge about different parts of the computer know about memory and storage history and development of computer the history of computer describes the advancement and growth of computer technology it is divided into different errors and has its roots starting from prehistory era abacus machine the abacus is a mechanical device which can perform basic arithmetic problems like addition etc this machine was the first machine invented in 4th century BC Napier's bones John Napier a Scottish theologian and mathematician invented logs in 1614 through which he was able to perform multiplication and division and later on it was converted to addition and subtraction William Sheppard William Sheppard built a mechanical calculator in 1623 which was able to perform the process of multiplication this device supported six digit capacity Blaise Pascal Blaise Pascal a French mathematician built a mechanical calculator in 1642 which could add and subtract two numbers directly and multiply and divide by repetition this device supported eight digit capacity Charles Babbage Charles Babbage invented another device with the name of analytical engine a mechanical computer that was able to perform basic mathematical problems at an average speed of 60 additions per minute history and development of computer the history of computer describes the advancement and growth of computer technology it is divided into different errors and has its roots starting from prehistory era abacus machine the abacus is a mechanical device which can perform basic arithmetic problems like addition etc this machine was the first machine invented in 4th century BC Napier's bones John Napier a Scottish theologian and mathematician invented logs in 1614 through which he was able to perform multiplication and division and later on it was converted to addition and subtraction William Shekhar William Sheppard built a mechanical calculator in 1623 which was able to perform the process of multiplication this device supported six digit capacity Blaise Pascal Blaise Pascal a French mathematician built a mechanical calculator in 1642 which could add and subtract two numbers direct and multiply and divide by repetition this device supported eight digit capacity Charles Babbage Charles Babbage invented another device with the name of analytical engine a mechanical computer that was able to perform basic mathematical problems at an average speed of 60 additions per minute history and development of computer generations of computer with the passage of time several changes were made in computer technology to meet the challenges of the age modifications were classified into different periods and later on these periods were also named as generations of the computer first generation of computer 1951 to 1958 the first generation computers used vacuum tubes technology these computers are large in size comprising of a large room they required a large amount of power and generated a lot of heat the first generation computers also used punch card and magnetic tape as an input device magnetic tapes were able to access large data but they process it sequentially second generation of computer 1959 to 1964 in the second generation of computers transistors replaced vacuum tubes punch cards were used as an input device to feed the computer programs instructions magnetic tapes were also used as an input/output storage some high-level languages like Fortran COBOL and basic were also used these are small sized computers less heat is generated and they consume less energy as compared to the first generation computers third generation 1965 to 1970 in third generation of computers integrated circuits replaced transistors integrated circuits consists of thousands of transistors fabricated in a single silicon chip these computers were more reliable smaller in size generated less heat and required less power and energy keyboards and monitors were used as inputs and outputs Pascal was used as a high-level language fourth generation 1980 fourth generation of computer was based on two technologies large-scale integration LSI and very large-scale integration me LS I in LS I technology about 30,000 electronic components were fabricated in a single chip while in VLSI technology about 1 million electronic components were fabricated in a single chip IBM made personal computers using micro processors keyboards and monitors were used as primary input and output devices fifth generation late 1990s in fifth generation computers voice recognition was used as an additional special feature voice recognition is also called speech recognition it is the ability of a device to receive and interpret dictation optical fiber technology was introduced for communication optical fiber is normally made of glass through which large amount of data can transfer in the form of light artificial intelligence technology was also introduced artificial intelligence acts like a human being for example robot artificial intelligence made the computers to have thinking power and rays classification of computers microcomputer a microcomputer is derived from the word micro which means smaller in size it is also called a personal computer because it is mostly used in homes for general purposes like making drawings budgets listening to music etc microcomputers use micro processors as its central processing unit laptop computers laptop computers are also called notebook computers this type of computer is portable and compact in size laptops are popular because they are easy to carry anywhere for example while you are traveling it can also be used with the help of its internal battery mini computer a mini computer usually falls between a micro computer and a mainframe a mini computer supports hundreds of users simultaneously for example pet master Toshiba ds1 and ES 400 mainframe mainframes were large cupboard sized computers these were expensive and their processing speed was extremely high mainframe computers were used to store manage and process large amounts of data that needed to be reliable secure and centralized the main feature of mainframe computers was that it was capable of supporting thousands of users simultaneously a mainframe computer had the capability to execute many programs running at the same time for example IBM 360 and EC mainframe handheld computer handheld computers are very much smaller in size they can be easily carried out in hand these computers use small keyboards and screens mostly handheld computers are designed to facilitate personal information manager functions such as a calendar and address books handheld computers are also called PDAs palm tops and pocket computers for example cs4 t ck 70 CK 71 palmtop these are computers which can be easily carried in hands or palms and that is why these are called palm top computers palm Tots are specifically designed for special functions like phone books and calendars pan tops use a special device called a pen as an input device for example Nokia 9500 Nokia e90 etc PDA personal digital assistant PDA stands for personal digital assistant PDA is a type of palmtop computer or handheld device which contains features of computing telephone fax and networking PDAs also use pen based device as an input rather than keyboard for example Nokia 7705 800 etc types of computers according to the purpose computers are divided into the following subclasses digital computer analog computer hybrid computer digital computers digital computer processes information in the form of digits everything is described in two states that is 0 or 1 of or on these computers are accurate but not as fast as analog digital computers serve a general purpose for daily life problems such as making home budgets playing games listening to music etc analog computers an analog computer recognizes data in physical and continuous form output of these computers is usually displayed on meter or graphs like voltage pressure speed and temperature therefore these computers are mostly used in the scientific laboratories these computers are high-speed but not as accurate as digital computers hybrid computer hybrid computers are a combination of analog and digital computers hybrid computers are specially helpful in science laboratories where both analog and digital data is required for processing applications of computer due to the remarkable progress of the computer technology it is useful almost in every aspect of life some of the most important fields are education business banking defence entertainment education computer technology is playing a very vital role in education sector students get their study nodes tutorials and even textbooks and solution manuals with the help of Internet technology it also enhances the students learning and helps improve the quality of education one of the great revolutions in education is eLearning business computer technology is playing a very important role in productivity and competitiveness of business sales and marketing department use Internet to enhance sales and marketing a customer can now easily buy and purchase products and the payments can be made just by using smart car it's internet banking and electronic deposits are even pay his bills online banking banking sector is also getting a great benefit from using computer technology internet banking is an example of modern banking where a customer can easily check his balance while sitting at home and can transfer funds without cueing or physical fatigue in fact computer technology has enormous ly saved the users time ATM is another example of modern banking sector the user can now draw money through ATMs anywhere and anytime around the clock defense the computer technology has productive applications in defense computer technology is used in intercontinental ballistic missiles rockets that use GPS Global Positioning Systems to help the missile to hit the specified target computer technology is used to track incoming missiles and hit them in the air more importantly the computer technology has the capability to design and test new systems entertainment computer technology has also provided enormous lehigh opportunities for entertainment and pleasure computer technology has brought a great revolution in movies and cinema sector introducing 3d technology which enhances the quality of the graphics gaming has become an important part of the computer industry where many companies are now developing games sports in sports computer technology is used for record keeping computer is used to collect and analyze the statistics and display the updated score computer also helps to sell tickets create training programs and even suggests diets for athletes important terms and computer parts buses buses are the electric paths through which data is transferred from one location to another location within a computer system there are a number of different computer buses which are as follows data bus data bus uses the combination of wires to transfer the data data bus is bi-directional address bus an address bus is also called memory bus it carries the memory addresses which are required by the microprocessor for reading and writing the data an address bus works only in one direction control bus the control bus is used to transfer control signals all commands generated by the CPU within the computer this bus works in both directions there are two important terminologies which are used to define the operations of computer buses this includes the following width the size of the bus is also called its width width means how much data can be transferred at one time clock speed every bus has its own data transfer has its own transfer speed which is called a clock speed it is measured in megahertz for example if speed of bus is 100 Mbps it means 100 mega transfer in one second computer ports computer ports are basically an interface or the connector and external devices can plug there are three types of ports serial port parallel port USB port serial port serial port is used to attach serial devices and it can transfer data one bit at a time that is why it is slow in processing serial ports are also known as communication ports or rs-232 see ports mouse and modem can be attached in these ports parallel ports it consists of 25 pins this port is normally used for connections of printers and other parallel devices a parallel port is capable of transferring eight bits of data at one time therefore parallel ports are faster than serial ports USB or universal serial bus universal serial bus is a serial bus used to attach every serial device USB is a plug-and-play bus that is why every device is now converted to USB ports like printers scanners and digital cameras etc almost 127 devices can be plugged in this bus micro processors microprocessor is also called the brain of the computer micro processor is normally in the form of a silicon chip containing millions of transistors fabricated on it and is called CPU central processing unit intel and AMD are well known brands of micro processors micro processors consists of the following different components ALU or arithmetic and logical unit the arithmetic and logical unit is an important part of the CPU it has the capability to do arithmetic and logical operations arithmetic operations are simple mathematical operation like addition subtraction multiplication or division logical operations performs comparisons operations like equal to not equal to less than greater than control unit control unit controls and coordinates all the components and operations of the computer control unit brings instructions from memory units and passes to ALU for execution in an appropriate order memory unit a memory unit is a temporary location inside the CPU for storing data and instruction temporarily for processing the data memory and storage primary memory primary memory is also called main memory of the computer primary memory is online memory which is directly accessible to CPU data and instructions are stored temporarily in memory to be executed these are memory chips mounted in the motherboard random access memory or are a.m. random access memory randomly selects memory location where data can be stored CPU gets data and instruction for processing and after processing CPU stores results in this memory REM is also called volatile because when a computer system is shut down all the data existing in memory is erased more RA M increases the performance of the computer ra m is further divided into the following categories dynamic random access memory or DRAM static random-access memory or Ram DRAM DRA M stands for dynamic random access memory in Dr am a combination of capacitor and resistor is used to store data in the form of charge a capacitor loses charge after sometimes it needs to be refreshed to maintain charge and data DRAM is slower but cheaper memory so it is used as system memory SRAM SRA M stands for static are a.m. in s REM combination of transistor and flip-flop are used to store data it does not need refreshing static RA M is generally used for cache a memory which can be accessed more quickly than DRA M s ra m is faster than dr a.m. but is costly so it cannot be used as per system memory read-only memory our om ro M is also primary memory which is only readable meaning data can only be read but new data cannot be entered in this memory this memory is non-volatile and data cannot be erased when power supply is switched off of computer data copied when this memory chip is manufactured types of ROM our theorem EP ROM and EEP ROM secondary storage secondly memory is also called secondary storage auxilary or baking storage these devices are used to store large amount of data permanently these are called non-volatile memory because after shutting off the computer the data is not erased types of storage media hard disks optical disks hard disks a hard disk is fixed drive inside the computer this is primarily used to store large amount of data and also provides a very quick access to retrieve the data or programs hard disk is available in different sizes like 10 GB or 500 GB etc optical disk an optical disk is used also as a secondary storage medium data can be written and read using a low powered laser beam optical disks are available in the following formats compact disk or CD digital versatile disc or DVD compact disc CD a compact disc is non-volatile storage medium which is used for recording about 700 MB data compact discs are available in the following types CDR cd-rw CDR see the are a compact disc on which data can be written only once and therefore see the R is called read-only memory data cannot be erased from CDR cd-rw see the RW CD is rewritable is used to write the data more than one time and can also erase the previous contents of the data CT RW is a little expensive than CDR DVD DVD digital versatile disc has the capability to store large amount of data movies than CD DVDs are rapidly replacing CDs just because of their higher capacity and performance DVDs are further classified into the following types DVD are recordable DVD R is used to record the data only one time it cannot be recorded or rewritten due to the nature of dvd-r dvd-rw rewritable DVD RW is used to record the data multiple times however previous data can also be erased from it motherboard of computer system the circuit board of the computer is called the motherboard of the computer all components can be attached directly and indirectly to the sport including microprocessor memory storage devices serial and parallel ports and expansion slots etc you this program comprises unit three input devices after completion of this unit you will be able to describe the purpose of input devices distinguish between different input devices have knowledge about keyboard devices have knowledge about speech recognition system have knowledge about point and draw devices have knowledge about date scanning devices the input devices are used to enter data and instructions into the computer following are most widely used input devices keyboard device keyboard is a standard input device as readily available for us to feed the data a keyboard is similar to a conventional typewriter with about 101 214 keys as shown below a keyboard is divided into three major parts function keys numeric Keys alphabetic numeric keys special case and screen navigation keys function keys function keys are twelve in number labeled as f1 to f12 transition keys are programmable keys to perform a specific stored function for example f1 key is used for help option numeric keys numeric keypad is very important for entering numeric data a numeric keypad is switched on and switched off by pressing num lock key it is mostly situated on the right side of the keyboard 0 to 9 + + – starik / + enter keys are present in such a keyboard a numeric keypad can also be used for arrow keys and page up-and-down tasks as mentioned on the keys alphabetic and numeric keypad alphanumeric keypad has alphabetic keys and numeric keys this is a standard keypad and is similar to a typewriter these keys are used to type the character data as well as numeric data it has QWERTY keypad and is used to enter a to Z alphabets both in upper and lowercase letters in the above keypad alphabetic Keys 0 to 9 and numeric keys are present and some symbols are printed and can be used by using the shift key special keys these are some keys situated between alphanumeric and numeric keypad and surround the alphanumeric keypad as well these are page up page down home and insert delete and tab caps lock shift ctrl alt windows escape etc screen navigation keys these are called arrow keys situated between alphanumeric and numeric keypad these are for arrow keys like left right up and down arrow keys these are used to move cursor anywhere on the screen point and draw devices point and draw device is an input device which helps to rapidly point and select an icon to display on the screen some popular input devices are trackball joystick mouse light pen touchscreen and digitizer trackball trackball trackball works just like a mouse trackball contains only one ball instead of different buttons like left or right etc trackball uses this pole to move the cursor position from one location to the other trackball neither uses any such pad nor covers much space joystick joystick is a pointing device joystick is mostly used by children to play their games it consists of a handle which can be used to move the object position left right and down joystick can also be attached with the television set it uses USB or special port supplied with sound card for connection mouse mouse is a pointing device a user can move pointer very rapidly on the screen with the help of mouse mouse controls the movements of the cursor positions there is variety of mouse available in the market for example real Mouse lays amongst wireless mouse etc wheel mouse wheel mouse contains left/right buttons and a wheel button at the middle wheel button is used to scroll the pages up and down very rapidly laser mouse laser mouse uses the laser beam for its movement laser mouse does not need any mouse pad laser mouse is automatically activated as it is attached with the computer light pen light pen is a pointing device which is used for making drawings light pen rapidly moves on the screen just like an ordinary pen but it works with electricity light pen does not need any alphabetic case touchscreen touchscreen enables the user to touch the data directly by using fingers within the display area touch screen is very simple and easy to use currently it is also used in mobile phones digitizer digitizer is used to convert maps Cheers and drawings into a digital form to store in the computer system a digitizer consists of a digitizing tablet and a stylus pen digitizing tablet is a flat surface on which stylus or a pen is moved to draw shapes pictures on maps etc speech recognition device speech recognition allows a person to input data to the computer through speech speech recognition device converts the human voice into text this device is specially helpful for disabled people speech recognition has the capability to first recognize words with the help of software or a device and then convert it into text or command types of speech recognition system single word speech recognition system these systems recognize only single words like hello yes no at one time continuous type of word speech recognition system this type of speech recognition system recognizes more than one word for a complete sentence for example hello how are you at one time uses of speech recognition system speech recognition systems are specially helpful for disabled people who cannot write it helps people who feel comfortable in speech rather than writing it facilitates a user in a situation where he or she is unable to edit or review a long text it also helps the user who is quite busy and doesn't want to type the data due to shortage of time data scanning devices image scanner an image scanner translates the printed documents into an electronic format and stores them into the computer important documents can be preserved in an electronic form by using image scanner for later use image scanners are further classified into the following two types flatbed scanner flatbed scanner is like a photocopier machine with a glass sheet flatbed scanners are also called desktop scanners in a flatbed scanner the paper is placed on a glass sheet and a light source is moved horizontally from one line to other line the process is repeated until all the lines are completed handheld scanners handheld scanners work much like a flatbed scanner but it works manually by the user itself for scanning the documents or products the scanner is dragged slowly with its light on handheld scanners are mostly used in shops to scan the price of products optical character recognition optical character recognition is also called optical character reader optical character readers use a software called OCR software OCR software the scanner first creates an image of the document and then the OCR software converts that image into a SC to text computer interprets the ASC two texts as letters numbers and special characters om our optical mark reader optical mark reader has the capability to recognize the pre mentioned marks either of a pen or a pencil optical mark reader is specifically helpful for making objective type questions the student mark the answer sheet by filling or darkening a circle oval shaped or square this printed answer sheet is fed into the computer and the grading is done by using optical mark reader nisi are barcode reader it is normally used in shops glossary stores etc this device contains the photoelectric cells that read barcodes consisting of lines having different thickness barcode reader helps shopkeepers to analyze the price of an item immediately m.i.c are magnetic ink character recognition m.i.c are is used to read the magnetically encoded characters m.i.c are is a system that provides a full alphanumeric recognition of printed or handwritten characters by simply scanning the form a user scans the data through a scanner which is recognized by an engine of the OCR system the m.i.c are converts the images into machine readable characters electronic card reader EC our electronic card reader is used to scan ecards smart cards like Visa card bank credit cards etc an electronic card reader reads the memory card of the ATM or debit card or Visa card etc the memory card is in the form of a black strip which is wiped through an electronic card reader machine vision input system vision input system is one of the latest input devices that recognise the vision image which appears in the range of its lens these are specially used to design industrial robots you he will learn about output devices this is an important lesson of your course book this program comprises unit for output devices after going through this unit you will be able to have knowledge about monitor and its types have knowledge about printer and types of printers have knowledge about plotter and types of plotter explain special function terminals have knowledge about voice response system monitor monitor is a standard output device which provides visual output from a computer the first device monitor was used to view output generated by a computer on screen a monitor is just like a TV screen monitors are of different types with different resolutions sizes and characteristics types of monitors following are the different types of monitors number 1 CRT cathode ray tube monitor number 2 LCD liquid crystal diode monitor number 3 LED light emitted diode monitor CRT monitor cathode ray tube CRT technology is an embedded vacuum tube technology which is evolutionary in the field of monitors these monitors are low-cost reliable and available in different colors etc however they consume much electricity and are heavy in weight LCD monitor a liquid crystal display monitor uses liquid crystals which were first discovered in 1888 by an austrian botanist Friedrich Rhine stir these types of monitors are very slim and lightweight the LCDs are rapidly replacing CRT monitors LCD monitors are used in notebooks small computers pagers phones and other devices LED monitor LED or light-emitting diode is an enhanced version of LCD with the fluorescent lamps having LED backlight it uses a semiconductor diode instead of filament LED is normally used in many devices such as cell phones computers monitors flashlights and movement sensors etc graphic adapters a video graphic is the device that performs graphic processing it is also called graphic card display adapter video card etc it describes the resolution refresh rate and number of colors to be displayed on the monitor currently the graphics circuit is built into the chipset size the monitor size refers to the distance in inches from one corner to the other of the viewable area a CRT monitor size actually measures the distance of the entire front of the monitor the size of monitor screen is measured in inches the commonly used monitor sizes are 14 inches 15 inches 17 inches 19 inches and 21 inches resolution resolution defines the number of horizontal and vertical pixels on the monitor the pixels are the smallest component of a digital image and are combined to form a comprehensive picture more pixels make better picture quality monitor resolution is measured in width by height like 640 into 480 resolution means that the width of the screen is 640 pixels and 480 is its height normally a user displays its output on the screen but sometimes a user also needs to take the output in the form of a paper which is possible with the help of a printer generally a printer may be black and white but color printers are also available printers are different in types for example dot matrix printer dot matrix printers are the character printers which print one character at a time it uses pin strikes on ribbon to form characters against paper the speed of printing of dot matrix printer ranges from 30 to 550 characters per second number one characteristics dot matrix is low cost printer and consumes less energy number two limitations dot matrix printers create noise during printing process they print the text with low resolution the font facility is limited and graphics quality is also not high inkjet printer inkjet printers are the character printers used to print all kinds of graphics inkjet printers print one character at a time and uses ink bottles in different color combinations inkjet printers use for ink cartridges graphic quality or text quality depends on the strength of the ink cartridge inkjet printers can be attached with the help of USB cable normally number one characteristics inkjet printers consume less energy the printing quality is high number two limitations printing cost is high because refilling bottles makes the cost high drum printers drum printers are used to print an entire line at a time it uses cylindrical drum as printing mechanism whenever a user wants to print a character a desired character is rotated around to the hammer line the hammer hits the paper and pushes it into the ribbon to print the character number one characteristics drum printer is energy efficient they consume less ink number two limitations the printing speed of drum printer is slow the printing quality is low and they also produce noise during the printing they cover a lot of space chain or band printers chain or band printer is also line printers that print one line at a time chain printers consists of a metallic chain or band and users chain as its printing mechanism a chain moves horizontally around a set of hammers when a desired character appears in front of the selected printing position the hammer hits the paper into the ribbon to print the character number one characteristics chain or band printers are low cost number two limitations they consume much electricity and cover a lot of space they also produce noise during the printing laser printer laser printers are called page printers that print one page at a time the laser printers use toners to print the desired characters they are also capable to print the high quality graphic images with resolution ranges from 600 to 1200 API to print a character printer send laser beam to a rotating drum to form a character on drum and then transfer character in egde on paper number 1 characteristics laser printers are speedier and noiseless the printing quality is high they can print on both sides of a paper number 2 limitations laser printers are expensive plotters plotters are used to print architectural engineering and mechanical drawings on large sheets with high printing quality pen plotter is most commonly used plotter which consists of six or eight color pen cartridges that move across the entire paper of the drawing they are capable of printing complex technical drawings nowadays these plotters are replaced by large capacity inkjet printers and led toner-based printers these are plotters but behave as raster plotters rather than pen plotters raster is a digital computer image which is the combination of small pixels special function terminal ATMs POS ATM automatic teller machine is used as an unattended device or a machine which is used in the banks for withdrawal of money outside the bank at any time ATM provides a very easy and secure way for the money transactions these sorts of machines use real-time operating system ATM monitors are specifically used for the money transactions with the following key features characteristics ATM provides instant cash withdrawal they are used to inquire quick balance the transfer of funds and money is easy to operate the pin number can be changed anytime POS terminal POS or point of scale terminal is used in place of cash registers on the shops currently the POS terminals have replaced the manual systems of registering the record of sale and purchase POS terminal immediately updates the sale and purchase records in the memory and also provides a printed receipt of the record the POS system has the capability to record and track customer orders they can also process credit and debit cards to their respective debit credit card server systems over the network these terminals are used in utility stores in Pakistan to maintain stock in machine and generate receipt of customer multimedia projector multimedia projector is used to display information from the computer on to a large screen this device is specifically helpful in delivering lectures and presentations there are further two prominent types of multimedia projectors LCD multimedia projector LCD projector is also called digital multimedia projector LCD multimedia projector can adjust the brightness and contrast and produce sharp images some popular LCD multimedia projectors are viewsonic PG 8 6 2 Sony etc DLP digital light processing projector DLP projectors are also called digital multimedia projectors DLP projectors are portable lighter in weight and smaller in size these projectors produce best quality video images they have the capability to connect easily to other digital devices like DVD players CD players etc voice response systems whilst response systems enable computers to talk with a user voice response systems keep an audio response device that help produce audio output in this way these systems provide an easy communication to both user and computer voice response systems are of two types one voice reproduction system once reproduction system uses a database of pre-recorded responses like words phrases or sentences which are spoken by a human being it produces the output by selecting the particular words and phrases from the database applications of voice reproduction system the most familiar example of using voice reproduction system is special ATM machine which uses voice reproduction system to provide systematic or step-by-step guidance to its customers it helps the customers to make a financial transaction another application is the automatic answering machine which is mostly used in telephone inquiries like schedules of trains and aeroplanes etc another interesting application is the children talking toys in which various exciting sums are produced speech synthesizer a speech synthesizer helps convert the text information into spoken words or sentences a speech synthesizer program is helpful for disabled people who cannot easily read whenever a user feeds the data in the form of text information the sequence of words is combined into phonemes the phonemes are amplified and passed on to a speaker applications of speech synthesizer speech synthesizer especially helpful for blind people who cannot read in special education sector study material or a book is presented to the blind person using a speech synthesizer in this way it becomes very easy for the blind person to get the updated knowledge or information it is helpful for people who cannot speak with either vocal problems and those who cannot communicate effectively for example a person having a disability can simply type the information and the speech synthesizer converts his information into spoken words for him speech synthesizer is also helpful for the interpretation or translation into other languages speech synthesizer program converts an entered text into spoken words in any selected language you assalamu alaikum dear students today we will learn about computer software this is an important lesson of your course book program comprises unit number five computer software after completion of this unit you will be able to understand the basics of computer software distinguish between application software and system software have knowledge about categories of application software learn how software's work learn how to uninstall software computer software software is a collection of data and instructions given to the computers to perform specific tasks it also refers to a set of programs procedures and associated documents designed for the working of computers the software is the logical part of the computer that the user cannot touch but use to make the computer operate computer software controls the operation of hardware or some other software types of computer software there are two main categories of computer software system software system software is a collection of computer programs that control the operation of computer and its devices it provides an interface between computer hardware and application software it is the backbone of a computer system which provides a platform for its operation system software helps computer users to make use of application software and perform the programmed activities system software monitors the use of various hardware components types of system software there are different kinds of system software's number one opera system an operating system is a collection of programs that coordinates the internal working of a computer system it provides us an interface to communicate with the computer it also manages all computer components and operations and isolates the hardware from the user a computer cannot perform any job without an operating system utility programs a utility program allows a user to perform an explicit task it is normally used to resolve system maintenance activities and provides assistance in these activities there are different types of utilities available for example formatting of hard disk system backup antivirus and file compressor number 2 device drivers a device driver is a system program that is used to turn on and manage a device such as monitors and keyboards attached to the computer device drivers are built-in programs provided by manufacturers of devices the devices cannot work properly without the drivers utility programs a driver typically communicates with a device to control its operations all devices must have device driver to work application software application software is a set of computer programs used to perform user specific jobs they allow the users to develop programs for the personal or organizational use an application program facilitates the user to manipulate text numbers graphics or a combination of these elements therefore there are varieties of application program available in market for different users categories of application software there thousands of application software available in the market it is not possible to categorize all application software's however some commonly known application software includes the following word processing software spreadsheet software database software graphics and multimedia software personal assistant software communication software word processing software word processor is an application program used for creating editing storing and printing personal and official documents word processor became popular in the 1970s and 1980s was merged with a dedicated processor like a computer processor for the editing of text since then different companies are developing word processor with new and enhanced features number one standard features of a word processor word processors have several text manipulating features the standard features include text editing text editing includes entering the text cutting copying and pasting the text making insertions and deletions etc word wrap the cursor automatically moves to the next line when the line is completed within the text status line status line provides all the information about the current document search and replace search and replace allows the user to search for a particular word or expression and replace it with some other word or expression headers footers and page numbers it allows users to insert tailored headers and footers that the word processor will put at the top and bottom of every page similarly page numbers can also be inserted at the top or bottom of the page spell checker spell checker allows the user to check the spelling of words it spotlights any word that it does not find in its dictionary table word processor allows inserting tables comprising of rows and columns save and print once a document has been created edited and formatted it can be saved and printed some well-known word processor includes the following Microsoft Word WordPerfect Apple Word in page used for or do typing spreadsheet spreadsheet is a data manipulation tool used for organization and analysis of information in tabular form it is a kind of computerized ledger that accepts data values in rows and columns and allows the user to perform calculations it is an application program that replicates a physical spreadsheet by entering displaying and calculating data available in rows and columns number one standard features of spreadsheet rows and columns a spreadsheet is a table consisting of columns and rows as shown in the following figure the rows are labeled by numbers and the columns by letters are shown in the figure 5.5 cell the intersection of a row and a column is called a cell a cell is uniquely identified by its column and row designators for example a 2 B 10 J 13 etc the data is entered into cells for further manipulation in the figure five point six the cell a1 is highlighted formula formula is a relationship between values and cells it is used to apply mathematical equation amongst data items of a cell for example d2 is equals to b1 plus c1 would calculate and display the sum of cells b1 and c1 into cell d1 functions functions are built-in formulas for certain problems that have already been created and stored in the program they are used as shortcuts when applying mathematical equations and give ease and flexibility to the users to handle complex calculations some examples are count sum Max and min graphs and charts data and information in spreadsheets can be analyzed in a graphic form spreadsheets allow the users to display numerical data as a graph or chart some well-known spreadsheet includes the following Microsoft Excel Lotus 1-2-3 quater pro database software database is a collection of related data that allows the users to retrieve edit and update the data database management system DBMS is an application software that allows users to develop access and administer a database data in a database can be added updated deleted and searched using a DBMS a DBMS is like a traditional filing system which stores individual groups and pieces of information relational database systems are the most common DBMS a relational DBMS has the following basic components tables a database is comprised of one or more tape or relations which is a group of related data items and contains the records for an entity tables are made up of records and records are made up of rows and columns holding the actual data items for example a student table might hold the information in the form of database table forms form is a graphical user interface used to communicate with the database they are used to enter data in the database a form consists of text boxes password fields checkboxes and other input objects these objects facilitate the user to communicate with the database easily the user can also access update and delete data by using forms some important advantages of forms are as follows forms are easy to operate they provide attractive interface for users the user can use forms without technical knowledge queries query is used to search the data items available in the database tables it uses standard language like structured query language SQL to manipulate the data items in the tables report report is meaningful information that is extracted from the database it is generated on the basis of one or more SQL queries reports are the output of database applications they are used to locate and arrange data in a formatted way the information retrieved through reports is arranged in different ways a report can present the data in form of tables records or graphs etc advantages number 1 reports provide efficient results from database number 2 it helps in making important decisions number 3 it can be printed and mailed easily some well-known database vacations include the following Microsoft Access Oracle SQL Server graphics software graphics packages our application programs that allow users to create edit display and print graphic images they enable a user to manipulate visual images on a computer category based features of graphics software number one sketch design the sketch design feature allows users to create design objects of different shapes and sizes these include lines circles rectangles etc users need not worry about the exact shape of objects as the package adjusts the dimensions of the shape according to the base of a design special features allow the users to rotate flip move and resize the object's dimensions number 2 paint feature the paint feature is used to paint designs of different varieties on the display screens IT is used to create colorful graphics on the screen without using original paints most paint features provide the tools in the form of icons by selecting an icon the user can perform functions associated with the tool number 3 photo editing the photo editing feature is used to edit and customize digital photos it allows users to save images in a wide variety of file formats besides this users can retouch images crop images change image shape rearrange objects in photos and apply filters to the images number 4 multimedia authoring multimedia authoring permits users to merge text audio video and graphics animations in an application the user can bring interactivity by controlling the placement of text and Eurasian of audio and video clips animations can also be inserted at the required places of application elearning applications can also be developed by using multimedia authoring tools and can be burnt on CDs or DVDs for students number 5 webpage authoring web page authoring allows users to create web pages that include images audio video graphics animations and other special effects they are used to make the webpages more attractive and interactive some commonly used graphic packages include the following number one adopt Photoshop number two choral draw number three macromedia freehand communication packages communication packages our application programs that are used to facilitate communication between two nodes computers mobiles etc they allow the users to send and receive data over communication systems the data transfer may be between two nodes or between networks of nodes the features of a communication package include the following number one data upload latticed sending the data from the user node to another node number two data download that is receiving the data on the user node number three user session maintenance that is recognizing individual user during live communication number for support of file transfer that is sending and receiving files over the network application packages for communication include the following number one web browser number two FTP or File Transfer Protocol number three SMS short messaging services personal assistance packages personal assistance packages allow users to and retrieve the personal information they are also used to plan and manage contacts meetings finances and other important information category based off personal assistance packages includes the following calendar calendar enables users to record appointments and meetings it alerts the users for the upcoming events and also informs them in case of any conflicts when a new event is scheduled it also allows users to browse the previous events with brief descriptions to-do lists to-do lists arranges the tasks to be performed by the user a user can plan and prioritize the tasks with intimation targets and deadlines address book address book maintains the names addresses telephone numbers and other related information about friends relatives and officials users can also search the particulars of known persons when required personal finance personal finance helps users to balance their checkbook maintain bills records and track personal income expenses and set up the budget tax preparation tax preparations guide individuals families or small businesses to prepare the taxes legal case preparations assists in preparation of legal documents and provides legal information to the concerned users how software works installation and uninstallation installation of a computer program is the method of making a program ready for execution and use the process varies for each program computer and operating system there is a program called installer which comes with every software the Installer is responsible for doing whatever is needed for the installation when software is installed on a personal computer a series of functions is performed before and behind the screen common measures performed during software installations include the number one study the features of different software versions and select the appropriate one as per your requirement number two make sure that system requirements are available number three if software is already installed it can be upgraded according to the latest version number four install only the licensed copy of the software installing a new software program if you are installing software downloaded from the internet you simply download the installer and it starts working if software is burnt on a cd-rom Installer will run automatically when the CD is inserted into the cd-rom the exact procedure may vary from one program to the other however the setup.exe is a file which is provided with the installation package of most of the application software's when the user double clicks the setup dot exe the Installer first unzips the files to a location in a temporary directory next a License Agreement comes up here when the user agrees they move forward next the Installer prompts the user for location of the program the default location is Program Files now the Installer can copy the relevant Program Files to the target location in the destination directory provided by the user an application is generally made up of many individual files most of the files are stored in the applications destination directory the installer continues the installation in the destination file till the completion of process the Windows registry is a hierarchal database that stores settings and preferences of software and hardware many installers provide shortcut at the desktop or Start menu to invoke the installed program after completing the installation it deletes all the files which were created temporarily finally a message is displayed that the program has been installed and the new software is ready to use uninstalling a program if a user wants to remove a program it needs to be uninstalled from the PC some programs provide an uninstall link or icon in the application directory however in Windows XP the user can uninstall a program' by using add or remove option available in the control panel the user clicks on the control panel and selects add/remove programs a panel appears comprising of installed programs the user selects the required program and clicks the remove button the uninstaller eliminates the program files along with the folder that it created and also removes relevant entries in the system registry you unit number six operating systems after completion of this unit you will be able to describe the basic concepts of an operating system identify the functions of an operating system define system performance measures and process management tools explain some popular operating systems explore microsoft windows practice introduction an operating system is the most important and major program that runs on a system every computer system must have an operating system in order to run different programs the operating system is a collection of software's which manages various computer hardware resources additionally it provides common services to different computer programs an operating system performs several tasks such as number one recognize input from a keyboard number two CEN output to a display screen monitor number three keep track of files as well as directories on a desk number four control various peripheral devices like hard drives printer video or sound card etc a figure shows the above basic concept in a clear way an operating system acts as an interaction between user and computer hardware operating system provides an environment where users can execute programs as soon as a user turns on or boots a computer the operating system is loaded into memory automatically the term booting is loading any operating system into a computer's memory types of operating system the operating systems are generally categorized into two major types depending on the basis of numerous features such as graphical user interface GUI and command-line operating system the description of both types of operating systems is given below graphical user interface a graphical user interface operating system basically provides a graphical user interface to its users in order to communicate with the system or computer in this interface the icons menus or graphical objects are being used for issuing commands the users of GUI operating systems don't need to memorize different commands while interacting with the computer the examples of GUI operating systems include Windows operating system and Linux etc the best features of graphical user interface may include it is easy to learn you don't need to memorize different commands by interacting with the computer it is simple to use user friendly needs to click on objects etc more interactive efficient as it provides various shortcuts multitasking run multiple tasks at the same time the drawbacks of the graphical user interface operating system may include it is not so fast as compared to the command line operating system it doesn't provide a powerful or significant scripting facility it doesn't provide full complete access to computer resources in terms of use it is slow as compared to command line operating system command line operating system a command line operating system basically provides a command prompt in order to type different commands the users type commands while interacting with the computer the users need to memorize different commands for performing various tasks the examples of command line operating systems include DOS and Unix the features of command line operating system CL OS may include it is faster than GUI operating system it provides a powerful and significant scripting facility it provides full complete access to computer resources there are also some drawbacks of the command line operating system such as it is not very easy to learn it is not very simple to use few command line operating systems provide the facility of multitasking functions of an operating system manage resources one of the major functions of an operating system is to manage the different resources of a computer that include mouse keyboard monitor printer storage devices or memory etc the operating system normally organizes information data into files and is called a file system the operating systems mostly use hierarchical file system where the files are organized into directories folders under a tree structure the screen shot of a tree structure while using Windows Explorer is shown below user interface the users basically interact with the application programs as well as the computer hardware by user interface today almost every operating system provides a graphical user interface or GUI where the graphic objects or icons are used to represent various features the GUI is an efficient interface using different pointing devices such as Mouse in order to point or click on icons menus lists as well as buttons on a screen run applications most of the operating systems run two or more applications programs at a time as soon as a user opens any program an operating system suddenly locates that application and loads it into a ram if more programs are being loaded then the operating system must allocate various computer resources support for built-in utility programs an operating system may use utility program for repairing and maintenance the utility programs are special programs which make the use of a computer easier when unexpected things happen such as hard disk crash virus attack or slow operations etc then functions of the utility program start Windows OS has many utility programs and are commonly known as system tools in order to find these tools follow the following steps click on start programs accessories system tools the main examples of these utility tools may include number one format number two scan disk number three disk digna number four disk Defragmenter and number five antivirus the following image shows a progress of disk Defragmenter which is basically found in programs accessories system tools system performance measures there are different methods which are being used for describing and measuring the operating systems performance such as measurement simulation and modeling as shown below process management the term process can be defined in many different ways such as a program in execution mode is called a process a word processing program which is being run in CPU basically a program is not a process but part of program which is running in CPU and is called a process some of these processes are referred to as operating system processes and some of these processes are referred to as user processes that execute user code in multitasking environment many programs run at a time but only one part of one program runs in CPU operating system is responsible for process management operating system is responsible for process management activities such as creating and deleting processes suspending and resuming processes providing mechanisms for the process in crona's ation providing mechanisms for the process communication providing mechanisms for the deadlock handling every process can exist in any one of the following mentioned states such as new a process is being created ready the process is now waiting to be allotted or assigned to some processor running the instructions are being carried out executed waiting the process is basically waiting for some result to occur like an i/o completion terminated the process has completely finished execution the following figure process States shows the relationship of all the above states of a process clearly commonly used operating systems different users may use different types of computers with different operating systems the main characteristics of commonly used operating systems may include number one system reliability such as Windows Error reporting automated system recovery and improved system restore etc number two faster start-up number three user friendly interface number four we're support improvements related to USB firewall Windows image acquisition or media Transfer Protocol etc number five Remote Desktop features number six system administration tools like Windows installer windows task manager disk Defragmenter or windows script host etc number seven network features such as Windows Firewall and internet connection sharing number eight important security features such as encrypting file system improvements credential manager software restriction policies etc the Windows XP Windows Vista and Windows 7 have emerged as one of the most popular operating systems a figure named as popular operating systems shows the above concepts in a clear way various types of operating systems Windows XP Windows XP is a famous and highly compatible operating system it was produced by Microsoft it is one of the most famous versions of Windows the name XP is mainly abbreviated as experience the following image shows the Windows XP interface there are a number of characteristics of this popular operating systems such as a new task based GUI be updated Start menu and taskbar see system reliability D faster start up e user-friendly interface F hardware support improvements G Remote Desktop features each various improvements to system administration tools I network features J important security features Windows Vista the Windows Vista was also produced by Microsoft it was released in 2007 this operating system is basically a successor to a very popular operating system Windows XP it can be used for personal computers like home and business desktops tablet PCs laptops or media center PCs etc it is also one of the most efficient operating systems the following image shows the Windows Vista interface as compared to Windows XP it contains a lot of changes as well as new features such as a updated graphical user interface B new visual style C updated search functions D important multimedia tools which also include Windows DVD Maker II a redesigned networking feature F audio print and display subsystems G user friendly interface this version of Windows included the feature net framework which allows software developers to write complex applications without traditional Windows api's application programming interfaces Windows 7 the Windows 7 was also produced by Microsoft in 2009 this operating system is basically a successor to another popular operating system Windows Vista it can also be used in all types of systems it is also very famous and highly compatible operating system the following image shows the windows 7 interface there are a number of characteristics such as number 1 updated graphical user interface number 2 multi-touch support number 3 a redesigned Windows shell with a new task bar number for improved multimedia features five faster start up number six remote desktop features number seven important security features number eight improved performance on multi-core processors number nine new visual style number ten networking features and number eleven user-friendly interface due to these features it is considered as highly stable an efficient operating system Windows 8 after this efficient operating system Microsoft has released Windows 8 in 2012 it can also be used for all types of computers in personal home and business Microsoft Windows practice Microsoft Windows practice includes different tasks such as how to start and shutdown a system create and open the icons as well as open clothes and sizing the windows etc all of the above tasks are briefly explained below how to start a system how to start a system in order to start the system simply follow the following steps number 1 press power button by front panel power switch power on/off monitor printer etc number 2 then click your user account icon in order to log on simply type password if installed or press Enter without password number 3 press enter to log on after that your desktop will appear how to shut down a system let us consider an example of Windows 7 in order to shut down the system simply follow these steps number 1 click the start button which is shown on down left corner number 2 then simply click shutdown icon as shown below in the following image number 3 the computer will shut down automatically how to change icons let us consider an example of Windows 7 in order to create or operate desktop icons simply follow the following steps number 1 right-click on desktop a smarter window will open with different options simply choose an option personalize number 2 after clicking this option another window will open where one can see an option change desktop icons on left upper corner simply choose this option number 3 another smarter window will open named as desktop icon settings here one can see the different icons number four after that select any icon then press change icon button another smarter window will open with a lot of images number 5 select an image of your choice and press ok button the image will be selected and window will close number 6 if you are satisfied then press apply and then press ok button after that process the selected icon with the new image can be easily seen on the desktop using elementary job commands it includes different job commands which are explained below creating a file each file is basically given a file name and extension such as docx Word document txt text file XLS Excel spreadsheet XLS Excel spreadsheet HTM or HTML html5 PPT PowerPoint presentation etc as the MS word is an application package used to create official personal documents so let us see the procedure of creating a file in an MS Word note Microsoft Office should be installed to work in it number 1 first of all click the start button then a list of different options will be open choose an option all programs number two then another list of different options will open choose the option Microsoft Office number three by clicking this option Microsoft Office different sub options will be opened immediately then simply click Microsoft Office Word a document will open which is basically known as a Word file number four simply write or type something on this file then after completion the file needs to be saved just follow the next step given below saving a file the following is the basic procedure of saving a file in the MS Word number one just click on the office button on the upper left corner of the file then click an option save by clicking this option a dialog box will open number two any path can be chosen for example Desktop number three then just give the file a name to identify this document for future use number four press Save button the document will be saved and a dialog box will close number five close this document by clicking close button from title bar modifying a file modify means to make changes in the document the following is the basic procedure of modifying an MS Word file number one simply locate the file to be changed simply locate the file that needs to be changed where you have saved it double click on this file then the file will open number two type something or change the document after that the file again needs to be saved there are two options to save this file such as number 3 clicking on the Save button present on title bar near office button then simply close this file then simply close this file the file will be saved number four otherwise simply click on the X button from upper right corner to close the document warning option will display that you have to save this file number five click on the yes button the file will be saved automatically on the same place and the documents will close renaming a file number one first locate your file let us consider the file is located on the desktop number two right click the file number three choose an option in rename number four the file name will be highlighted in blue is ready to be retyped the number five type a new file name and then press enter number six the file is renamed deleting a file number one first locate your file as in the above case the file is basically located on the desktop number two right click the file icon number three choose an option delete number four a delete file dialog box will appear in order to ask you are you sure you want to remove this file to the recycle bin number five choose yes if you want to delete this file number six then the file will be moved to the recycle bin if you want to restore this file in the original location follow these steps number one double-click on the recycle bin the recycle bill will open that has the deleted files number two select accidentally deleted file that needs to be restored number three click on restore this item the file will move to original position if you want to permanently delete files from the recycle bin follow these steps number one open the recycle bin number two select the file or files click on empty recycle bin file or all files will be deleted permanently which cannot be restored finding a file in order to find a file in a system follow these steps number one double click on the icon computer on the desktop a window will open number two on the upper right corner of this window an option search computer is seen number three just click on the search the cursor will blink just write the name of the file which you want to search number five after that the system will start finding that file within a short time period different files related to that name will be shown on this window number six one can easily find the exact file from there creating and operating a folder creating or operating a folder is a very easy task to create and operate the folder follow these steps number one right click on desktop or any hard drive and do right click wherever you want to make a folder number two then a dialog box will open choose the option new number three after clicking this option a new connected dialog box will open choose the option folder number four by clicking this a folder will be made and highlighted in blue color with the default name new folder which is ready to be retyped number five type a new folder name and then press enter number six the folder is created and is ready to be used in order to operate a folder generally number one go to the created folder or previous folder number two double click on that folder number three folder will open files and folder if exist in number three folder will open files and folder will be displayed number four click the X button on the title bar to close the folder number five click back button to go back in the upper folder changing settings like date time and stop color in order to change date and time follow the steps given below number one on the lower corner of the desktop the date and hang is shown number two click on the date and time icon number three a dialog box will open which shows a complete calendar and block number four click on change date and time setting another window will open number five changed the date and time and press ok button number six the date and time will be changed and shown on the taskbar changing the desktop color there are different ways of changing the color of desktop in Windows 7 to change the desktop background color follow these steps number one first of all click the start button then a list of different options will be opened number two choose an option control panel then another window with different options will open number three one can see here an option appearance and personalization and different sub options which can be seen number four in these sub-options just click on the option change desktop background then another window will open number five click picture location icon then some options will be seen just click on the option solid colors number six many different color icons will be shown here choose the color of your choice and press Save Changes button number seven then the desktop color will be changed using shortcuts the term shortcut means to do something within a short period of time there are a lot of keys which are generally referred to as shortcut keys and can be used in order to do different tasks some of the commonly used shortcut keys for Windows 7 are described in the figure control panel and its usage control panel is basically apart of Microsoft Windows which allows computer users to view manipulate and control system settings such as system and security network and Internet hardware and sound appearance and personalization as well as user accounts etc in order to use the control panel just follow these steps number one first of all click the Start menu then a list of different options will open choose the option control panel number two then another window the different options will open number three in order to use these options just click any option of your choice and choose the option program and features as shown in the above figure number four click any unwanted program that needs to be uninstalled right-click choose uninstall an installation process will start concept of task manager the windows task manager mainly provides information about all these processes or programs which are currently running on a system the users can also access it by pressing ctrl + Alt + delete it displays the currently running services tasks and processes in order to view the task manager just follow these steps number one right click on the task bar a window will open just go to start task manager option number two by clicking this another window will open whose name is windows task manager number three here one can get the information about different things such as applications processes services performance networking and users it also provides information about general status of a system it is basically used to terminate a running a process setting up network connections the purpose of setting up network connections is to use the Internet to set up a network connection just follow these steps number one click the start button to view the start menu and then choose an option control panel as shown in the following image number two the control panel window opens up then click the option network and internet number three then click another option network and sharing center number four after that just click set up a new connection or network number five another window will open and then click the connect to internet and press next note after the above step if internet is working on your system then you will find the message you are already connected to the Internet it is simply meant that you can go to your internet browser and use the Internet otherwise follow the next steps given below number six if internet facility is not available here one can find different options such as wireless or broadband etc number seven select any one option like broadband number eight path to selecting this option you will enter a username and password which you will get from Internet service provider or ISP number nine then click connect when it is connected successfully then the window looks like the image given below number ten after that you can close the above window and simply go to your internet browser and use the Internet easily IP setting an IP address Internet Protocol address is a numerical label it is basically assigned to each computer with mitches member of the computer network in order to assign an IP address in Windows 7 just follow these steps number one click the start button to view the start menu and then choose the option control panel number two the control panel window opens up then click the option network and Internet number three then click the option network and sharing Center number four click the option Local Area Connection number five a window will open and then you press the button properties number six another window will open and you select the option Internet Protocol version 4 tcp/ip v4 and press the button properties after that another window will open immediately number seven here you will find two options which are described below obtain an IP address automatically select this option and then press the button ok your system will automatically get an IP address this will be the dynamic IP address on the other hand if you will select the second option use the following IP address from this option you can assign IP address manually called static IP address then you will give the following information IP address subnet mask default gateway preferred DNS service preferred DNS server alternate DNS server after giving this information just press ok and close all other windows now you will be able to use the Internet you this program comprises unit number seven data communication and networking after the completion of this unit you will be able to learn the conceptual model and basic elements of data communication system differentiate between data and transmission mode and data transmission forms understand different types of data transmission media know about basic concepts of computer networks have a knowledge of switching and routing techniques understand concepts of OSI layer model data communication data communication is the flow of electronic data among two nodes computers and other devices through communication media to manage the communication the nodes must be part of communication system and linked with each other furthermore the data communication software is used to transfer data from one node to another the communication system is governed by three fundamental principles that include deliver accuracy and timeliness number one delivery the system must carry data to the correct destination and data must be received by the correct recipient number two accuracy the system must deliver the data with accuracy the incomplete data is unusable therefore it should be accurate as per sending format number three timeliness the system must deliver data in time late delivery of data may not be effective therefore timely delivery should be achieved basic elements of communication system following are the five basic elements required for any communication system number one message message is text audio video and images that is communicated over the communication system number two sender the node that is used for transferring messages is called transmitter source or sender number three medium medium is the pathway through which messages sent from one point to another wire telephone lines fiber optics or microwaves are mediums used in these days number four receiver the node that receives the message is called the receiver number five protocols a protocol is a set of rules a protocol is a set of rules which govern the data transmission between sender and receiver without protocol the information is useless for the receiver as a person understanding only you cannot understand English messages therefore messages sent over through communication protocols can only be understood by the receiver data representation forms different kind of information can be sent over through a communication channel it includes the following number one text and numbers text and numbers are sequence of bits zeros or ones they are represented by a set of bit patterns typed using the keyboard and is called a code number two images images are also characterized by special bit patterns it is comprised matrix of pixels picture elements the size of image is larger than that of text and numbers there for data transmission speed is important for reliable and fast delivery of images number three audio and video audio and video refers to the recording or broadcasting of music or sound and video or movies they are also sent over the communication system types of network a compute network connects two or more systems in order to exchange data and information with each other computer networks are classified into three broad categories that is LAN LAN man ma n and when W a n local area network or LAN a local area network connects group of computers and devices with each other within a limited geographical area each node in a LAN has its own CPU and storage area in addition it has the access to the resources of other nodes available in LAN it allows the users to share hardware and software resources in LAN they can also communicate with each other by sending messages and emails lands are characterized by the following properties number one they transfer data with a very high speed number two they exist in a small geographical area number three the LAN technology is less expensive metropolitan area network or ma n a ma n metropolitan area network is a larger network than LAN comprising of a large city or area it can connect several nearby lands to one another and individual systems at high speeds wide area network wal a wide area network or W a n interconnects lands and man's a 1 may be located within country or it may be interconnected the whole world they can span in an unrestricted geographical area they are more complicated and complex than lands and man's the van technology is expensive network topologies network topology is the connection arrangement of nodes in a computer network it is the topological structure of a network that defines configuration of cables computers and other peripherals the major types of network topologies include star ring bus and hybrid topologies star topology star topology is the most general type of network arrangement that is used in offices and homes in star topology all the computers are connected to a central hub or switch the communications take place via hub which acts as the common connection device all the data initiated by nodes passed through the hub the hub forwards it to the destination node hub also manages and controls the whole network advantages of a star topology number one the star topology is easy to install number two the wiring arrangement is also easy number three the transmission delays do not increase if a new node is added number four if any node fails it does not affect the network number five it is easy to detect faults number six addition and removal of parts is easy in star topology disadvantages of a star topology number one star topology requires large cable length number two if the hub goes down the whole network will be blocked ring topology the computers are attached with each other in a closed cable each node has exactly two neighbors the computers and devices connect each other and complete the network data passes through all nodes until it reaches its final destination any breaks in the connection loop might take down the entire network advantages of a ring topology number one there is no central device for controlling the network number two ring topology is easy to install number three the wiring arrangement is also easy number four it provides equal access to devices and not a single node uses all the bandwidth number five it is easy to detect faults number six adding and removing nodes is also simple disadvantages of a ring topology number one the transmission signals woes in sequential order which creates delays number two a single break in cable can disturb the flow of the whole network bus topology bus topology is one of the most simple network topology in bus topology all the nodes are connected into a single cable this cable is the backbone of the network and therefore it is known as the bus every node sends and receives data through this bus advantages of a linear bus topology number one it is easy to add a new node in bus topology number two bus topology requires smaller cable lengths as compared to star topology number three that is also cheaper as compared to star topology number four it is suitable for smaller networks disadvantages of a bus topology if the main cable breaks the whole communication system goes down number two all nodes should be capable of responding immediately against messages number three the main cable requires terminators at both ends number four if the number of devices is increased it drops down the efficiency of bus network number five it is not appropriate for networks with heavy amount of traffic number six the security of bus network is low because all the nodes received the signals from the source mesh topology a mesh topology is made up of a network where each node is interconnected with each other it a one-to-one connection amongst all the computers on the network the arrangement of mesh technology is very expensive as dedicated connections are required between every node of the network and it results in many redundant connections the mesh topology is not frequently used to develop media based computer networks advantages of mesh topology number one mesh topology allows to send data from different devices simultaneously number two if one of the nodes fails it does not affect the network number 3 extension and alteration in mesh topology can be done without disturbing the other nodes disadvantages of mesh topology number 1 there are high chances of redundancy in many of the network connections number 2 overall cost of mesh network is high as compared to other topologies number 3 setup and maintenance of this topology is also very difficult data transmission modes there are three modes of data communication simplex half-duplex or full duplex simplex mode in a simplex connection the data flows only in one direction from the source to the destination for example in television and radio transmission data and message is transmitted from the radio television station to the radio and television set half duplex in half duplex the data flows in both directions but one at the same time it means that message can be transmitting at one time not received walkie-talkie is an example of half duplex where a user ends his transmission with announcements of over to prevent overlap and facilitate the other one who's talking full duplex in full duplex the data flows in both directions at the same time each node can thus transmit and receive the data simultaneously telephones are common examples of full duplex devices they allow both users to hear each other and talk at the same time data transmission speed data transmission speed is measured in bandwidth it is a measure of the amount of data transfer through a network over a given amount of time it is also called data transfer rate or board or expressed in bits per second BPS data transmission forms there are two forms of data transmission that is analog and digital analog transmission analog is the transmission of data in a continuous waveform the human voice is an example of analog data when someone talks an analog wave is created in the a medium analog signals are represented by continuous range of values as shown in the following figure Digital transmission digital is the transmission of data using distinct on and off electrical States as you can switch on or off your light the data bit can have values like 0 or 1 the combination of these bits forms the digital data digital data can be converted into analog signal which is then transferred from one computer to the other at the receiving end it is again converted into digital signal data transmission media data transmission media is the pathway used to carry a communication signal from one node to another there are two types of transmission media guided media guided transmission media is based on a cabling mechanism that directs the data signals along a specific path the data signals are dependent upon the physical characteristics of the medium therefore it is also called bound media there are three basic types of guided media number one twisted pair coaxial cable number 3 optical fiber twisted pair wire twisted pair is a couple of copper wires twisted together and unfolded with a plastic coating each pair consists of two wires used for the positive data signal and negative data signal meaning ground there are two kinds of twisted pair wire number one shielded twisted pair number two unshielded twisted pair shielded twisted pair or STP shielded twisted pair cable is composed of two cables twisted with each other and enclosed in a foil cover and copper shielding STP cable uses shields to reduce outside interference or noise it is a more secure cable since it keeps the signal from leaking out of it unshielded twisted pair or UTP unshielded twisted-pair cable is not enclosed in copper shielding UTP cable is usually very flexible and is easy to use however it can get unnecessary interference and data from other cables and networks the other disadvantage is that the UTP while traveling through it may lead to other nearby cables UTP cables are used in local telephone communications and short distances up to one kilometer coaxial cable coaxial cable unlike twisted pair comprises of one conductor it consists of one copper wire which is covered with a shield coaxial cable can be used over longer distances and supports more stations on a common line than the twisted pair coaxial cable is one of the most common types of flexible transmission medium due to its flexibility it is used in wide variety of data transmission applications the most important of these include television network long distance telephone communication local area networks optical fibers an optical fiber is a slim flexible and thin glass fiber medium for data transmission the optical fiber transmits data in the form of light signals electrical signal converted in light and at receiving n light signals re converted into electrical signals the shape of optical fiber is like a cylinder that consists of three sections the core cladding and the jacket some important features of optical fiber include the following number one optical fiber provides protection against external electromagnetic fields number two optical fiber has low attenuation then coaxial cable or twisted pair number three they are smaller in size and lighter in weight number four they have greater capacity of data transmission uses of optical fibers include the following number one optical fibers are used as light guides and imaging tools for microscopic study and factory automations number two optical fibers are used as lasers for surgeries in medical field number three optical fibers are used to construct networks of different apologies number four optical fibers provide high speed data transmission with accuracy number five broadcast cable companies are using fiber optic cables for wiring purposes unguided media unguided media doesn't use any physical paths between the two devices communicating it simply carries electromagnetic waves without using any physical medium signals are normally broadcast through the air and carry on to the receiving end important types of unguided media include microwave systems and communication satellite microwave systems microwaves are of high-frequency radio signals that transmit data through space it is used to provide communication link among long distance areas for lowing are the types of microwaves terrestrial microwaves satellite microwaves terrestrial microwaves there is true microwaves are used to broadcast wireless signals across a short distance the transmitter is a parabolic dish and is mounted at height to get the best frequency and transmission these waves cannot bend or pass through buildings and hills therefore unblocked line-of-sight must be available between the source and the receiver repeaters are also used at a distance of 25 to 30 kilometers between transmitting and receiving stations both private networks and common carriers can use terrestrial microwaves Terrace trail microwaves are used for both audio and television transmission satellite microwaves satellites are transponders that are set in orbits directly over the equator communication satellites are microwave relay stations placed in space satellite dishes are used to send the signals to the satellite where it is again sent back down to the receiver satellite the uplink is the transition of data from earth to the satellite the downlink is the receiving of data transmitted by the satellite the communication satellite is a technological revolution in modern data communication they are used in different data communication applications like number one television distribution number two long-distance telephone communication number three private commercial networks because of the broadcast nature satellites are used to broadcast live News & TV broadcasting to the world satellite communication also provides one-to-one link between telephone exchange networks it provides an efficient and reliable way to connect international trunks now mostly data communication is performed using fiber optic and satellite switching techniques in a network one-to-one note communication requires some complex arrangements it is not possible to connect each node to the other with a separate cable a better solution is switching a switch is a connecting device that links network devices switches are also capable of building provisional connections between two or more Network nodes there are two important methods of switching that is circuit switching and packet switching circuit switching in circuit switching a devoted circuit is built during transmission of data in this method a physical path is created for a single connection between two endpoints in the network for the period of connection after the circuit has been established the data transfer takes place the transmission path is booked during the transfer of data and other systems cannot use it until the data transfer is completed and the circuit is released the most common example of a circuit switched Network is the public telephone network like a TCL which provides telephone services advantages of circuit switching the circuit switching communication is efficient there are fewer chances of errors it is also highly reliable disadvantages circuit switching requires a lot of formalities during formation of the circuit the bandwidth may be wasted especially when a user is only listening and not talking the setup of the channel may take up along the time packet switching is another communication method which converts data into small sized blocks called packets the packets have different types of transmitting data regardless of content type or structure each packet contains a header which consists of routing information from source to destination the same data path is shared amongst the users in a network due to division of different data items into packets the packets are also independent of each other and therefore dedicated communication link is not required this type of communication between sender and receiver is also known as connectionless the example of packet switching includes internet where most of the application transfer data by a connectionless mode of communication advantages of packet switching it makes efficient use of network resources it can manage variable data rates it can easily handle in fees number of transaction disadvantage of packet switching it is not a good scheme for small data packages the ordering of packets may alter during the transmission and reordering requires time routing techniques routing is the process of transferring information from one location to another across a network it is also referred to as the procedure of selecting a path to send the packets over a network routing is one of the most important features of the internet because it takes messages from one node to another each node receives information and passes it to the other until it reaches its destination a router is a device that carries routes to the routing process it receives the packet and forwards it to its next destination node it is located at gateways the network connection point which connects to networks with each other source routing source routing is a technique that is used to specify the route of a packet through the network in this routing technique the source needs to pass information along a specified way therefore the path through the network is set by the social food source routing can be used to troubleshoot any network and increase the network performance hop-by-hop routing in hop-by-hop routing the source does not have all the information about the destination in this method each node along the path passes the information packet only to the next node the packet forwarding process keeps on working until the final destination is reached hop-by-hop routing decisions are based on channel availability and readiness of adjacent nodes difference between switching and routing the switching method makes use of switches only ass which acts as a connector only it receives packets and sends them directly it connects one point of a network to another turning it on and off as necessary a switch examines the MAC address and determines where a packet should be sent within the datalink header of the packet where the MAC address is unique identifier of network interface card a switch maintains information about MAC address and related ports in database and uses it to find the next location the routing method makes use of routers a router acts as a connector and a scheduler and manages traffic of the network it determines the optimal path in a network and routes packets accordingly the router makes use of this routing to determine the route to the destination host communication protocol a computer network connects two or more nodes together to share data information and resources multiple networks are connected together to form a grand network besides the cable there are many processes that execute behind the scene in order to run the network smoothie however the smooth running of network is governed by some standards and specifications these standards and specifications define set of rules for data communication and network a protocol is a set of rules and procedures that governs a process a communications protocol describes the rules and regulations for data transfer between nodes over a network in a computer network a communication protocol performs the following functions number one it defines the size of data packets number two it provides numbering scheme of data packets number three it provides error and flow control number four it also defines mechanism of connection establishment and termination number five it manages the data security number six it manages the data routing algorithms for delivery of data number seven it also manages the communication log information the most important Network protocol is OSI concept of OSI model the open system interconnection OSI is most commonly used protocol in network communication the OSI model was first released in 1984 by the international standards organization or is Co it describes the data transmission procedure in the form of seven layers it explains how information is sent through a sender to a receiver and also describes different stages where information takes different form through the underlying architecture of seven layers the OSI model consists of seven layers each corresponding to a specific Network function the seven layers are physical Data Link Network transport session presentation and application layer one physical layer physical layer is concerned with the bit stream that is transmitted over the physical medium it deals with electrical mechanical and timing specification of the interface and transmission medium it also defines the functional and procedural specifications of the medium the physical layer is Hardware specific and describes procedures and functions for dealing hardware over the network it also deals with physical characteristics of medium data rate synchronization and LAN configuration and physical topology of the network layer 2 data link layer the data link layer is responsible for transmission of data over the network it receives messages from upper layers and assembles it into frames data link layer converts these frames into bits for transmission over the network it also receives the bit at the other end and reconverts it into the frames the data link layer has other functions as well such as physical addressing error flow and access control for a single link between network nodes layer 3 network layer the network layer is responsible for delivery of messages from source to destination it deals with routing of messages by translating logical addresses into physical addresses it determines the path of the data on the basis of network environment urgency of service and other factors it also manages traffic flow and associated problems on the network such as switching routing and congestion of data the network layer handles the routing and packet filtration using the logical addressing mechanism layer 4 transport layer the transport layer receives messages from session layers and divides it in the form of packets it submits the packets to network layer 4 transmission over the network at the receiving node it resequencing the messages by reassembling the packet segments the transport layer ensures end-to-end delivery of packets and sequence and ensures error delivery without losses or duplications in the transport layer facilitates the upper bit hiding the complexities of network operation from them it also manages connection flow and error control it uses acknowledgements to manage source to destination flow control layer 5 session layer this manages dialogues between two computers it looks after identification of names and security parameters that are required by applications to communicate with each other the session layer inserts checkpoints in the data flow to synchronize the data stream the checkpoints break the data into smaller groups for error detection the session layer also incorporates protocols to resume dialogues that have been interrupted layer 6 presentation layer the presentation layer looks after syntax grammatical rules and semantics of information needed for communication between two nodes it defines the data and display format required to exchange information amongst networked computers the presentation layer also handles the data formatting details such as data encryption and data compression layer 7 application layer the application layer of the OSI reference model enables the user to access the network it is concerned with providing user interfaces and services on the network like file services print and email services and database services network interface card network interface card is a hardware device that physically makes the connection between the computer and the network cable it is a printed circuit board that is installed on the expansion slot of the computer it also provides a port to connect the network cable the important functions of n IC are to send the data to another host to receive the incoming data and translate it into machine language to prepare data from the computer for the network cable to control the flow of data you unit 8 multimedia this program comprises unit 8 multimedia after going through this unit you will be able to describe the basic concepts of multimedia explore the importance of multimedia identify and use various multimedia components identify and use different multimedia applications introduction newspaper was the first and foremost mass communication medium because it mainly used text images and graphics it was the major source of information for the people afterwards motion pictures radio and television were the major and significant new media till the 20th century this entire new media changed the whole world of mass communication the mixing of all these media creates multimedia where text images graphics audio and video are the major components the term multimedia is derived from two different terms multi and medium therefore multimedia can be defined as a combination of multiple media used to used to deliver information to the users digitally a figure named as overview of multimedia shows the history of multimedia briefly to understand the meaning of multimedia see definitions and examples given below multimedia is a field with computer controlled combination of text animation graphics audio video images and any other form of media which can represent store transmit and process all information digitally it can be said that multimedia generally means that the computer information can be represented through animations audio and video in addition to other traditional medium such as text graphics and images a figure named as multimedia the integration of various forms of media shows this concept in a clear way various forms of multimedia mostly require huge disk space in this regard compact discs CDs and DVDs can be used multimedia presentation a presentation which involves audio or video clips as well as animations can be considered a pure multimedia presentation these types of presentation put very positive impact on the audience because with the help of audio and video clips a presenter can present well and a viewer can understand the presentation easily multimedia software educational software involves text audio video and animation and is also called multimedia software these types of software can help learners and students learn easily and improve their learning skills regarding their education multimedia CDs are the best examples where instructions are integrated through the form of text images audio video animations and graphics multimedia system a multimedia system is capable of representing multimedia information digitally and is characterized by storing processing generating and manipulating multimedia data and information or components characteristics of a multimedia system there are four main characteristics of a multimedia system and they are given below number one the multimedia system should be integrated number two the media system must be computer-controlled number three the information which these systems handle should be represented digitally number four the interface towards final presentation of medium should be typically interactive a figure named as characteristics of a multimedia system shows this concept simply without these characteristics a multimedia application can't be effective valuable or user-friendly in order to make the multimedia application valuable these characteristics should be included in it there are a lot of different fields where multimedia applications are being used and these are mentioned below business sales or marketing presentations tradeshow production staff training applications education courseware simulations eLearning distance learning entertainment gains interactive movies video on-demand online home television satellite TV mobile phone public places information kiosk smart cards examples of multimedia there are many examples where multimedia plays an important part and provides a lot of benefits Multimedia courseware Multimedia courseware is an important application of multimedia which is capable of number one improving the learning skills of learners number two enhancing their knowledge regarding their education the learners can easily understand the different concepts because of multimedia content overall it simply leaps towards better educational results world wide web or w-w-w world wide web is commonly abbreviated by uw-w most important applications of multimedia there are many important features of world-wide-web such as number one the users can easily gain precise knowledge by using World Wide Web number two it provides any required information instantly number three it is easy accessible electronic newspaper and magazines the electronic newspaper or magazine is the highly popular multimedia application it is widely famous amongst people of all ages it contains many features such as number one it is the one and only mass communication media which provides current information number two it always keeps people up to date with the fresh national and international news number three it is a reusable refreshable and self-contained version adaptation of a traditional newspaper which holds all information electronically with new conferencing it is a live connection that allows people in different locations to interact with one another for the purposes of communication by using computer networks number one it includes both audio and video image number two it is a face-to-face communication which gives participants an opportunity to see others body language and facial expressions number three it allows different people to communicate with each other interactive movies entertainment is very necessary to keep people glad and fresh the multimedia application such as interactive movies or games are the best examples of entertainment especially for children because number one the interactive movies and games are a source of pleasure for the children number two children not only enjoy but also learn a lot while watching interactive movies multimedia components multimedia is generally a combination of different contents like text computer graphics animation audio and video these contents are called multimedia components each component has its own importance for worth which can be easily seen in different multimedia applications the detail of these components is described below text text is the most important component of every multimedia application number one title and headlines number two labels and captions number three menu list of options of choices number four navigation number five content text and multimedia applications can easily express and convey specific information graphics graphics is another significant part of any multimedia application it can be mainly used to number one reinforce text number to supplement text number three create impact in graphics there are two main levels of abstraction such as pictures and images the pictures can be easily originated in the world which is external to the computer oil paintings and photographs are the well-known examples of pictures on the other hand the images are basically the computers realistic version adaptation of pictures it depends on two main factors the first one is the quality of system computer and secondly the graphic designers skills to use software the following figure which is named as picture versus image clearly shows this concept the computer graphics can be of two forms such as bitmap raster and vector based bitmap raster is basically an image file format which is used to save or store digital images many other image file formats like PNG portable Network graphics gif graphics interchange format gif tag image file format and Jaypee eg photographic experts group can also store bitmap images but these are not normally referred to as bitmaps vector based computer graphics is basically based on sketching or drawing different elements and objects like circles lines and rectangles to create an appropriate image this is all based on mathematical equations which are used to represent images mainly in computer graphics properties of graphics graphics standards mainly include OpenGL open graphics library graphics are usually selectable editable or revisable rafacz are usually generated by a graphics editor program graphics are a two dimensional figure or illustration which can be produced manually by drawing or painting graphics format is constructed by the composition of primitive objects such as lines polygons circles curves and arcs animation animation is basically the illusion of motion created by the consecutive display of images of static elements with the help of this important component of multimedia the multimedia applications can become interactive the visual effects like dissolves or wipes are motion are mostly used for primitive animations the major characteristics of this component is defined below number one it is mostly used to add some visual impacts to any multimedia application number two it is used to further enhance enrich the experience of the user to further understand the information can wait to them number three it is one of the major elements of a multimedia application which attracts audience rapidly video video is another most important component of multimedia there are many major characteristics of this component which makes a multimedia application very effective and valuable in an interactive multimedia application the video component plays an essential role by number one capturing number two recording number three processing number four transmitting and number five reconstructing the moving pictures it is a most powerful and main tool in a multimedia application it can add very good impact to any multimedia application in order to make it more interactive valuable and effective audio it is another most important component of multimedia it provides the listening pleasure of music it can be used for different important purposes such as number one it gives instructions in order to understand the available material number two it basically comes in multimedia applications in different forms such as speech or sound effects multimedia applications the multimedia applications include different things such as multimedia presentation foreign language learning video games special effects in movies multimedia kiosk animated advertisements and multimedia conferencing multimedia presentation the multimedia presentation is one of the major multimedia applications it includes almost every component of multimedia there are many important features of this applications such as number one it can be used almost everywhere such as educational areas industrial areas or business sectors number two it is the best way to present different views to others number two it is the best way to present different views to others the presenter can deliver his or her ideas in a very good way with the help of different significant multimedia components number three the learners can understand different views easily with the help of images audio videos and animations number four overall these types of multimedia presentations but very fine and positive impact on the target audience foreign language learning learning is basically a complete process where a learner adopts information or knowledge from different ways language learning is very essential to choose an easy way of learning the learners can adopt knowledge from many other different multimedia applications such as number one multimedia CDs number two multimedia presentations number three electronic newspapers number four world wide web or www member five interactive movies the foreign language learning is not an easy choice but these types of multimedia applications can provide a way by which the learners can learn easily world wide web is an easy way from where one can learn easily get information and learn quickly there are many ways in order to learn a foreign language online such as educational areas colleges or universities dictionaries online movies online interactive games books or online presentations animated advertisements advertisement is basically a form of promotion in order to get attention of the audience such as viewers and readers towards the desired product or a thing today there are a lot of platforms where different things are being advertised efficiently like number one Facebook number 2 YouTube number 3 Twitter number 4 MySpace number 5 LinkedIn and number 6 Google in all these platforms the multimedia components play an essential part in advertising different content there are many multimedia applications which are being used for advertising such as multimedia presentations electronic newspapers world wide web or interactive movies animated advertisements can easily capture the attention of the target audience with the help of animation the advertisements can become number one more interactive number two valuable number three effective number four attractive and number five well accepted multimedia conferencing it is an important and significant application of multimedia video conferencing is a computer-based multimodal and includes almost every multimedia component it is a platform where two or more persons can be linked together and can interact with each other with the help of computer network in this system the user is capable to use natural communication modalities which include voice video facial expressions and body movements users can utilize this system to interact with each other and the information can be exchanged easily between them the video conferencing is a live connection that allows people in different locations to interact with one another using computer networks it includes both audio and moving video images to provide predictable performance high speed internet connection is needed the video conferencing is basically used for the purposes of communique by using computer networks there are many advantages of this multimedia application but the main feature of this application is defined as persons or users interact with each other by using their communication modalities such as voice video and facial expressions video games the video games are also one of the major applications of multimedia known as electronic games various interactive electronic devices are being used with different display formats to make these video games more effective and valuable there are various types of video games being used for entertainment for people of different thoughts such as number one action games number two educational games number three political games number four puzzle strategy and board games and number five sports games all these types of video games are equally popular amongst people of all ages especially children and youngsters have major source of entertainment there are many platforms where these games can be played efficiently such as number one computers number two internet number three mobile phones all operating systems contain different video games which can be placed very easily many online video games are also available today which are very interactive and interesting to use almost every mobile phone contains different types of games which is a big source of entertainment at every time special effects in movies a visual effect which is added to a movie theater or a video game to simulate different events is referred to as special effect it can also be simply defined as the illusion which is used in number one movies number two video games number three television programs and number four Multimedia course pair design in movies the special effects is considered very important as compared to videogames television programs and multimedia course per design the movie is one of the major applications of multimedia and special effects make this multimedia application very interactive significant and valuable special effects are widely used in different movies such as horror animated and science fiction movies the special effects belong to two different segments such as art and science the science part provides a way to understand how audio visual sensory parts of a body observed the whole world around us the art part includes the planned use of all information in order to fool this sensory system Multimedia kiosk computer terminal located in a public place where people may use it for various purposes are generally referred to as kiosk the multimedia kiosk contains various essential hardware components like number one central processing unit or CPU number two touchscreen monitor number three stereo speakers and number four printer the multimedia kiosk contains software to store data exchange messages administer transactions or dispense various products to customers multimedia components make this application very attractive useful and effective with these multimedia components people can use this application efficiently and gain a lot of benefits the major and most important example of the multimedia kiosk is ATMs or automatic teller machines almost every bank offers the facility of ATM today a lot of people use ATM to obtain money fun transfer pay utility bills many more the multimedia kiosks are mostly found in some major places like number one supermarkets number two shopping malls number three airports number four banks number five educational areas you this program comprises unit number nine programming language after going through this unit you will be able to understand the basic concepts of computer language become familiar with the domain of high-level and low-level languages differentiate between compiler interpreter and linker have knowledge about different structured programming languages have knowledge about object-oriented programming languages know about web development languages know about scripting languages programming language a computer cannot perform any operations at its own it requires some instructions to perform a task the computer execute these instructions in a sequence and performs the required job now the question is how to formulate the instructions that a computer can understand the instructions are formulated according to a predefined format and that format is based on the syntax and semantics of a programming language a computer language is an artificial language used for writing instructions or programs a programming language provides a way of giving instructions to the computer it is used to communicate and give commands to a computer computer program a program is a set of commands or instructions given to computer to perform a task a program instructs the computer to perform the task and produce the required result the computer execute these instructions and gives the desired output a person who writes a program for computers is known as a software programmer the process of writing sets of instructions in a computer is called programming types of programming languages there is a large number of programming language developed by different organizations and each language has its own characteristics and scope the computer languages are divided into two broad categories these are low level language high level language low level language low level language is a language directly understood by the computer these languages are considered to be closer to computers programs and applications written in low-level language are directly executable on the computing hardware without any interpretation or translation therefore low level language programs run very quickly and use very small memory there are two kinds of low level languages these are machine language assembly language machine language machine language is the fundamental language of the computer originally computer programs were written in machine language at earlier stages machine language statements are generally composed of a string of on of all zeros and ones that is binary numbers machine language instructions are composed of an operation code and an operand typical operation involves reading writing adding subtracting and so on the operand represents the variables or items of data involved in this function advantages of machine level language it has fast execution it requires no translator to decode that instructions disadvantages of machine level language these languages are machine specific a programmer has to know the details of computer hardware it is difficult to find errors in a program coded machine language a programmer has to memorize large number of instructions to write a program in case of any small mistake an error may be raised in the program a program becomes lengthy and creates difficulty for debugging assembly language assembly language was developed to overcome the drawbacks of the machine level language it was a remarkable improvement over machine language assembly language uses letters words and symbols instead of binary digits assembly language is a little bit easier than machine language since assembly language is also machine dependent language assembly language syntax is called mnemonic code examples of mnemonics include add which add up the data items and move which moves data from one location to another this program is written in assembly language is then converted into machine code by an assembler the important elements of assembly language include label open and operand advantages of assembly language the programs written in machine language are replaced by mnemonics which are easier to remember it is easy to make insertions and deletions in programs it requires fewer instructions than machine to accomplish the same result high-level language high-level language or H ll is a type of computer language that uses English and mathematical symbols for its program construction they are also considered as third generation in an H ll each statement is equivalent to a large number of assembly language commands or instructions that perform complex computing operations the programs concentrate only on the logic of applications without considering the machine architecture advantages of high-level language the high-level language is machine independent and program oriented it is easy to learn and use it requires less time and effort to write a program in an H ll it provides better documentation of programs due to similarity with natural language the debugging of programs is also easy in H ll as a result high-level languages are used more often than machine or assembly language however the programs written in high-level languages need to be translated into machine language during execution process for this purpose language translators and linkers are used for this purpose compiler interpreter and linker compiler a compiler is a computer program that transforms source code into object code the source code is the program written in a programming language an object code is the executable form of the code often in a binary format a user writes a program in a high-level language and uses the specific compiler designed for that language to execute the program the compiler scans the entire program first and identifies errors if required and then translates the whole program into machine code the machine code is then executed by the processor interpreter an interpreter is a computer program which translates a high-level computer program into its equivalent machine language code it reads only one line of code at a time and converts it into binary language and then runs the code on the machine before translation of next line difference between compiler and interpreter the interpreter takes one statement at a time translates and executes it and then takes another statement while the compiler reads the entire program in one scan and then translates and executes set due to scanning a program compiler takes a larger amount of time and interpreter scans line by line and so takes lesser time in the same process link a linker is a computer program that links one or more object files generated by a compiler and combines them into a single unit to execute the program when a program comprises of more than one object files the linker combines these files into a single unit executable program commonly used high-level languages procedure oriented language the disadvantages of machine and assembly language led to the development of procedural languages in the late 1950s and 1960s languages are also called third-generation languages these languages consist of English like statements that are used for the development of computer programs procedural language is based upon the concept of the procedure call a procedure consists of series of steps executed by the computer system a procedure can consist of routines subroutines methods or functions there are hundreds of procedural languages available for computer programming however only few of them are used widely in the market and are also recognized as standard programming languages Fortran the Fortran was developed by a team of professionals at IBM headed by John Backus and was first published in 1957 the name Fortran is an acronym for formula translation it was developed for programming scientific and mathematical applications some of the significant features of the language are the language is easy to learn the programs are portable or machine independent the complex mathematical equations can be written in simple regular algebraic notations it provides efficient execution of program it allows to control the allocation of storage it provides more autonomy in code layout as compared to low-level languages ball copal or common business oriented language was one of the older high-level languages it was developed in 1959 by a group of computer expert consortium called conference on data system languages or Co de Syl it is a programming language designed for business applications for over four decades COBOL has been the dominant programming language for the development of business computing applications COBOL contains such English like instruction formats such as verbs nouns sentences and sections some of the significant features of the language are COBOL is suitable for programming business application COBOL is a simple language it encourages a simple programming style file records and variables are defined in detail the language is portable as its standard does not belong to any particular vendor C language the C language was designed and developed at AT&T Bell Labs in the early 1970s by Dennis Ritchie it was initially designed for the UNIX operating system but it soon demonstrated itself a powerful general-purpose language near to low-level language so it is used for system programmers moreover compilers and interpreters for other languages such as Fortran Pascal and basic are also developed in C language it is also used to develop complex business and commercial applications some of the significant features of the language are C is a general-purpose programming language it is an efficient and powerful programming language it is independent of any particular machine architecture the modularity allows breaking a large program into small manageable pieces which can be reused in other programs object-oriented programming language Oh Opie object-oriented programming or Opie is a programming domain which uses real world entities and objects to design applications and computer programs the objects are the instances of a class which provides a template for defining the objects each object can receive messages processed data and send messages to other objects object-oriented programming encourages a programmer to decompose a problem into related subgroups each subgroup becomes a self-contained object that includes its own code and data that relates to that object in this way complexity is reduced and the programmers can manage large programs all Hopey languages share three common traits that is encapsulation polymorphism and inheritance there are varieties of languages available that support object-oriented programming let's look at a few important ones Java Java is an object-oriented programming language initiated by James Gosling and released in 1995 by Sun Microsoft systems computer programs developed in the Java programming language can run on any hardware an operating system platform the java code is compiled to an intermediate representation called Java bytecode later this code is interpreted for execution by an interpreter called Java Virtual Machine some of the significant features of the language are Java language has both compiler and interpreter it is platform independent the code of Java is robust as it first checks the reliability of the code before execution it has built-in capabilities to ensure that violations of security do not occur Java is a distributed language because it supports network programming it is capable to employ multi-threading techniques for program Oshin C++ the C++ programming language is an extension of the C language with some additional features it was developed by John Strasser up in the early 1980s at Bell Laboratories C++ is an object-oriented program language but comprises of all the features of C language C++ is one of the most popular programming languages and is used on different varieties of hardware platforms and operating systems it covers a vast area of application development including application software systems software hardware device drivers embedded software client and server applications and entertainment software such like video games some of the more significant features of the language are C++ is an elegant language users can program procedural and object-oriented style or both C++ has a wide range of compilers that run on many different platforms and machines it has a large function library it is suitable for development of reusable modules this reduces cost of software development it provides fast execution of source code which for GL's fourth-generation programming language or 4gl 1970s to 1990s a class of non procedural high-level programming language it allows the users to specify what data to retrieve delete or insert rather than how to perform the operation it is intended to maximize the user effort and decreased development time and cost of application fourth generation language includes the following database query language database query language is used to manipulate the database applications it allows formation of queries that process several records from one or more database tables shut query language or SQL is most important example of database query language report generator report generator allows extracting data from a database and presenting it in the form of a formatted report it also allows applying arithmetic and logical operations on the desired data visual language is event-driven processing visual language has replaced text-based instruction with symbolic icons an event can be a mouse click a button press a drop down menu selection or an internal action for Windows activity Visual Basic and visual C are the example of visual language while writing program in any visual language the programmer does not write the code of the program in some specific order as in the case of text-based programming similarly users also do not follow the order that is the user might want to choose from a pulldown menu click amongst button or key and might do these tasks in virtually any order visual programming is more complex than programming for textual application but execution of visual program is highly user friendly some authors refer to visual programming languages as fifth-generation languages web page development the term web development refers to different activities related to the development of a website for the internet the web development activities include web designing web content development and client and server-side coding web development can range from simple to complex websites including simple text-based static page to more complex web based applications including a business elearning and social networking application a variety of techniques are available in order to develop web pages these techniques use of programming languages discussed previously and some special hypertext and scripting languages hypertext markup language or HTML HTML is a special tag based language used to develop web pages HTML allows users to publish variety of documents on the Internet in a platform-independent way creates links within the same documents and includes graphics and multimedia within the web page document HTML is written in the form of HTML elements and has specified attributes that apply on word text or paragraph the elements are written with the start and end tag with the content in between users can write HTML code using any text editor such as notepad besides this many tools are available that generate HTML tags automatically according to the document formatting these tools include Microsoft front-page and Dreamweaver etc XHTML or extensible hTML is a markup language that enables websites to be displayed on mobile phones and other mobile devices acting languages a scripting language is a programming language that supports the writing of a script most of the scripting languages are interpreter based which makes the code execution efficient scripting languages are used to facilitate the development of webpages the program development in scripting language is fast and it also provides easy communication mechanism with the programs written in other languages some of the more significant features of the language are scripting languages are easy to use and learn they require minimum programming knowledge or experience they handle complex programming tasks in relatively fewer steps of text editors are available to support script language programming they allow to create dynamic and interactive activities on webpages they also provide fast editing of their pages a variety of scripting languages are available that includes the following JavaScript VB script PHP or preprocessor hypertext pe RL or practical extraction and report language characteristics of a good programming language there are large numbers of high-level languages available in the software industry these characteristics include the following a programming language should be simple and user friendly the syntax of the language should be in resemblance with the natural language the language should be capable of handling different programming approaches like procedural structural an object-oriented language should have compactness and extensibility features the program execution should be efficient the error discovery and removal should not be a cumbersome task selecting a programming language the following factors are important for the language selection process the language should be suitable for the application domain for example COBOL is suitable for business application the language should be selected keeping in view the targeted platform where the application will be executed if there are multiple languages available then expertise of the staff should be considered and only that language should be selected for which proper expertise is available time to produce is very dependent on the size of the code or language the language should be selected to meet the project deadline the availability of program development tools like compiler libraries should also be taken into consideration the language should also have a strong community support behind it the future enhancement should also be considered you you

37 Comments

  1. Marcian J. Salandy said:

    Thank you for sharing, I am grateful.

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  2. El Hajj Abdulai said:

    Hi please I need guidance. ..can you help me???

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  3. abdul aziz said:

    KeyGrabber USB

    Small, fast, and smart

    This keystroke recorder has up to 8 gigabytes memory capacity, organized into an advanced flash FAT file system. Super-fast data retrieve is achieved by switching into Flash Drive mode for download. Completely transparent for computer operation, no software or drivers required. Supports national keyboard layouts.

    http://www.keelog.com/

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  4. Ðivâgar ice said:

    How many people understood siri mother

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  5. Madeel 96392 said:

    great

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  6. Info Tech EP said:

    I have appreciation an serious love for it that I did my degree in education with emphasis in Computer Science. It has inspired me to start my own YouTube channel where I post Tutorials on IT related content.. Great Tutorials!!.. Love it!!!.. Very informative..

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  7. Merdokiyos Mamo said:

    wow thank you

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  8. Waqar Younis said:

    Thank you!

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  9. deepak kumar said:

    As Salam alaikum kaha say ya Gaya ICT me

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  10. PRATIK Nepal said:

    Good information

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  11. AJIT PUJAHARI said:

    Very good job

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  12. prempal singh said:

    Good

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  13. YASSIR ABDINAASIR said:

    Thanks your explanation can you help me

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  14. Kenyan gossipers said:

    Now I have exams and am here

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  15. Charity Vanessa Phiri said:

    This is very nice madam

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  16. MJ MaHaK said:

    Can I write this for cadet exam???
    🤔🤔

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  17. Nechirvan sehdun said:

    1.5 is speed for the normal speech

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  18. Internet Viewer said:

    Is this video available with a different voice over?

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  19. Agha Haseebullah Khan said:

    tommorrow is my exam test about ict class and now i am starting the preperation of ICT HAHA because i am intelligent boy

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  20. Agha Haseebullah Khan said:

    Exellent

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  21. Agha Haseebullah Khan said:

    keep it up

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  22. Vijay Dhanavelu said:

    Clear and neat ✌👌

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  23. Abin Regi said:

    !!! I city ?????

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  24. Emmanuel P. Sackie said:

    Thanks Madam

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  25. iwaheedinpro said:

    thank you

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  26. melvin esquivel said:

    Hi ICT has Animation for Grade 11?
    ^_^ thank you for the video so much I learned it here ^_^

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  27. Endee Wizz said:

    Greatest knowledge of ict

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  28. Angela Staples said:

    Thank you!

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  29. Saransh Yadav said:

    Thanks Miss, can you help me identify how many 1 hour lessons does this video cover?
    Also may I know, for what grade level is this video?

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  30. Uma Senorj said:

    omg!!! is it really this long??? I just wanted a tutorial for my boards

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  31. Seble Eshetu said:

    Its so very nice

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  32. mn b said:

    Gifted lecture

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  33. hasan ali said:

    Are slides available pls. if available kindly send at [email protected] Thanx a lot

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  34. Whiteson Mtonga said:

    this is good inform,thanks

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  35. Iam oromo Oromia said:

    Thanks very much

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  36. ali.benamor khorcheni said:

    Thanks

    May 17, 2019
    Reply
  37. Computer Education said:

    Thanks for provides such a nice Complete Tutorial on Basic Computer Course with all Supporting information and communication Technology aspects.

    May 17, 2019
    Reply

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *