UJ w BBC Arabic: Sztuczne białka / Artificial Protein


DALIA HAIDAR Studies into protein
structure and functions are carried out all over the world. In one of the labs at the
Jagiellonian University in Kraków brand new proteins
are designed from scratch. We’ve asked Dr Jan Różycki from
the Małopolska Centre of Biotechnology to tell us more about this topic. Could you tell us how and why you produce new artificial proteins? Normally, we grow proteins
in bacteria cells, to which we introduce a gene
with an encoded protein sequence. JAN RÓŻYCKI
MAŁOPOLSKA CENTRE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY, JU Then the bacteria trigger
the growth of the protein, which is isolated
and purified in the lab. Yet, this isn’t always possible.
Some proteins are toxic to bacteria. We produce them using this machine. One of its great advantages resides
in the fact that, unlike bacteria cells, it can be used to introduce unnatural
amino acids into protein structure, which can give them
unique therapeutic potential How do you make new proteins
with this device? All proteins are made of building blocks
known as amino acids. Amino acids link with each other
forming protein chains. This apparatus is an automatic
peptide synthesiser. To put it simply,
peptides are small proteins or fragments of larger proteins. The device consists of two parts. The upper one features containers with
amino acids used for the synthesis and other chemicals required in
synthetic protocol. The bottom chamber
is a kind of microwave oven. Yet, it differs from an ordinary microwave, as it raises temperature much faster and regulates it with greater precision. Inside this chamber,
there is a reaction vessel, where the protein synthesis, that is,
the linking of amino-acids, takes palce. It contains a special resin, to which subsequnent amino acids
are added in a specific order. How many amino acids do we need
to produce one protein? It depends on the size of the protein
we would like to produce. If a protein consists of, for instance,
100 amino acids, we need 100 amino acids to form it. If we’re interested in creating
shorter proteins, consisting of, e.g., 10 or 30 amino acids,
then we use an adequate number. The protein synthesis process consists in
linking subsequent amino acids with one another. Yet, the liniking
isn’t a spontaneous process. The reaction requires activation by adding certain compounds. The substances play the role of a glue which fixes amino acids together until a full protein sequnece is formed. Jan has acquainted us with
the synthetic protein production process. Can we see how these proteins look like? They come as a white powder. This protein is just before
the final purification, whereas that one
has already been purified. What’s the difference between
these proteins And those
which already exist in our body. These proteins are exactly the same
biologically active substances as those produced inside our body. E.g., many hormones are produced
with the methods presented today. Then they are applied
in various therapies. During their production, we can also
introduce various modifications to increase the activity
of the final product. We already know
how to obtain new synthetic proteins. What are their specific applications? Many synthetic proteins
have come into medical use, like the already mentioned hormones,
such as the commonly known insulin. The market of proteins for medical use
is constantly growing along with the need for production of
new proteins with therapeutic potential. Thank you very much. Our visit to Poland is underway
and we will soon be back with new reports about technologies
used in biomedicine and other disciplines. See you in the next installment of 4Tech.

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