The History of Computers Documentary 2018



it has revolutionized the way we work play travel and communicate it touches almost every part of our lives it has helped win Wars solve insoluble problems and send us into space its invention is the story of squandered chances fortunate accidents frequent missteps and unprecedented genius now the creation of the computer on modern marvels our world is increasingly filled with countless wonders that would not have been possible without one machine the computer although computers are enormous ly intricate their most basic components consist of simple devices that can be switched to either one of two states on or off the computer creates its magic by calculating with a speed and accuracy that far surpasses its human inventors computers stagger the mind with their complexity but simply put a computer takes information processes it and then outputs a result it's all done with a unique partnership of hardware and software hardware comes in boxes there the physical components such as the monitor and hard drive software comes on disks software consists of instructions that tell the computer what to do one way to start this computational partnership is to type on the keyboard providing input the input is picked up by the central processing unit or CPU the computer's brain using instructions provided by software the CPU processes the input the magic behind the CPU is its blinding speed modern processors are measured in M IPs millions of instructions per second while processing the CPU may receive data stored in random access memory known as RAM or data stored on hard drive modern RAM is so quick that every second it can send the equivalent of 10,000 typewritten pages of information to the CPU and modern hard drives can store the equivalent of 250 thousand pages of typewritten material after processing the CPU outputs information often on a monitor the whole procedure is usually so quick that it appears instantaneous today computers are so commonplace we take them for granted but not long ago computers only existed in the imagination of a few visionaries the search for a machine that could figure quickly and accurately has seized the human imagination for thousands of years in fact the computers family tree has roots so deep in the past it is impossible to know exactly where they begin by the early 19th century the European Industrial Revolution was well underway and the development and production and commerce came from the maturing fields of engineering navigation surveying finance and science the practical application of these fields relied on volume after volume of tables tables for trigonometry tides interest rates multiplication and gravity tables were critical the actual figuring was done by people who specialized in mathematical computation surprisingly these people had a familiar job title they were called computers these human computers toiled over the tables incessantly monotonous ly and made mistakes typically tables were full of errors the requirement for accurate tables introduced one of the most eccentric and brilliant figures into the story of computers Charles Babbage Oh Babbage was an extraordinary scientist I mean Babbage was a great scientist Babbage was a hundred years ahead of his time you can't say that about many people but you could say that about Babbage Charles Babbage represented that extraordinary element of British society the scientist aristocrat many were known for their eccentricities and Babbage was no exception as a youth Babbage devised Footwear of hinged boards intended to allow him to walk on water never one to shirk adventure he tried them out himself but flipped over and nearly drowned Babbage demonstrated his brilliance in mathematics while attending Trinity College in Cambridge in 1820 Babbage was checking the accuracy of calculations made for the Royal Astronomical Society and kept finding errors he reasoned that a machine could be constructed that would calculate the tables and directly print the results he called the Machine the difference engine he drew up plans for a section of the device and had it built with his own funds in 1822 Babbage couldn't pay for the construction of the entire device but since the greatest beneficiaries would be the British government and people he made the extraordinary step of petitioning the government for a grant in 1823 the Treasury provided the project with start-up funds government support for the computer industry is nothing new it's very much a big topic in the in the news today and it will continue to be computing is an expensive proposition and it usually requires some government support if it's going to get anywhere Babbage hired a mechanical engineer set to work on a complete design for the difference engine and immediately ran into difficulties the mechanical machine shops of the time were not advanced enough to produce parts and the precise measurements that Babbage's plans required so Babbage designed better machine tools which would eventually improve the entire state of British tool manufacturing by 1829 Babbage had spent the 1500 pound grant from the government and even more than that from his own funds but only a few bits and pieces of machine had been completed Babbage's project began to attract critics he was plagued by several problems one of his problems being his perfectionism another problem being that his work was not under well and was not understood or appreciated by the people of his time Babbage had many enemies even London's organ-grinder's despised him because he had tried to have them banned as their music interfered with his thinking but the inventor continued to toil and finally in 1832 there were enough parts to assemble a section of the engine it functioned perfectly solving equations in producing six digit results but it was only a small part of the proposed machine the skyrocketing costs and lack of results finally made the government pull its support from the project although disappointed by the cancellation Babbage had contributed to the project's demise by suggesting that a new device he had conceived the analytical engine would be vastly superior to his old design Babbage in hindsight probably should have finished the difference engine and seen how far he could have gone with that before starting the analytical engine there's no question that the analytical engine was more than he could handle Babbage was obsessed with his new idea with the analytical engine Babbage asked himself why not build a machine that could solve any mathematical problem at the age of 43 Babbage had the vision of a computer a vision he pursued for the rest of his life the extraordinary fact is that Babbage's overall design for the analytical engine had many components analogous to those in a modern computer the heart of the machine the mill made the calculations like the central processing unit of modern computers an oblong structure the store held numbers to be used in the calculations like modern computer memory instructions and numbers could be fed into the machine using punch cards much of what we know about the workings of the analytical engine came from the writings of ADA Countess of Lovelace among the people who understood what Babbage was doing was a woman named Ada Augusta who was the daughter of one of the daughters of Lord Byron the poet she had studied mathematics as a child and had quite a bit of talent ada met Babbage at one of his famous dinner parties that were often attended by the luminaries of British science and engineering Babbage demonstrated the working section of the difference engine for her and she was immediately captivated by it she published a simple description of Babbage's vision for the analytical engine ada wrote some descriptions of it and she also appended to these descriptions a hypothetical way that this machine could solve an equation and on the basis of those descriptions people often call her the world's first programmer but she was never to program a real machine as Babbage entered the last years of his life his great work was unfinished he had become cranky and suffered constant attack by his many enemies in 1871 when London's organ grinders discovered that Babbage was ill they surrounded his house and serenaded him increasing his agony until he died only a small portion of the analytical engine was built in Babbage's lifetime Babbage's vision of the computer fell into obscurity and except for the detailed texts left by Ada could well have been forgotten Babbage's machines which were never finished which existed for the most part only on paper were proto computers they were mechanical they used gears they used metal shafts they weren't computers in our sense of the term that is they weren't electronic digital computers but they were abstractly and on paper mechanical computers it would be nearly 100 years before a programmable computation device would again be conceived Babbage predicted it would take just three years to complete the difference engine it actually took him 14 in the second half of the 19th century America's population increased 35% each decade America's exploding population began to endanger one of its great institutions the American census the census which is required by the Constitution to be held every ten years was still being done by old-fashioned people with mark-making checkmarks on pieces of paper and it simply couldn't keep up with the tremendous surge of population in the US the crisis reached a head in 1887 the Census Bureau was still hand tallying the data from the 1880 census desperate for relief the Bureau pleaded for any method that could speed up the counting of the 1890 census the superintendent of the census had proposals for three systems so he decided to stage a contest two of the systems relied on hand counting the third developed by a young rather humorless former MIT instructor named Herman Hollerith used punched cards punch cards would one day become the standard method of feeding high volumes of data into computers now where he got this idea we are not sure he may have been inspired by the fact that a conductor on a railroad punches your ticket when you hand it to him it Hollerith system beat the others easily in the tabulation portion of the test it was nearly ten times faster the Census Bureau least 56 of Hollerith machines at $1,000 a year each and put them to work in July 1890 census bureau clerks used holler its machines to punch the cards and then tabulate the results scores of operators were trained to use the puncher quickly and accurately the tabulating was done with electricity a metal pin that passed through a card hole made electrical contact with a cup of mercury completing a circuit that was registered on Italian device that consisted of rows of clock like dials Polaris machines were a step toward the later development of computers they significantly sped up the processing of information the results of the 1890 census count were a triumph for Hollerith in just six weeks the population count of 62 million six hundred and twenty-two thousand two hundred fifty was tallied Hollerith became the talk of the scientific community he rented an office and set himself up in business he called his new enterprise the tabulating machine company Hollerith have the Census Bureau business in his pocket and the future looked bright but it turned out to be harder than it seemed Hollerith natural aptitude for mechanical devices was obvious but he also proved himself to be a dog at businessman he drummed up business among one of the biggest industries of the day the railroads with the increase in population and the push West the railroads had grown into enormous organizations with personnel stations cars and customers scattered all across the country hundreds of clerks produced tons of paper to help track and manage these vast empires Hollerith convinced the New York Central Railroad to try out some of his machines the experiment wasn't a success tolerance machines could compute fast enough for census work but couldn't keep up with the speed and volume of the railroad business after three months the machines were removed father with his shortened capital and faced ruin he moved its family into his mother-in-law's house he sold his assets even his horse to raise money to redesign his machines to improve their speed reliability and ability to make additions Hollerith even customized the punch cards for business computations such as adding columns to store dollars and cents after a solid year of tedious work Hollerith returned to New York Central and offered them free use of his new improved and faster computing machines for a year within three months the railroad was convinced and contracted to lease the machines the tabulating machine company was back on track Hollerith had avoided bankruptcy and now had more work than he could handle and Hollerith you could say came along just in time it was a combination of his invention making this available but also the need out there required something like that so it was a convergence of the social needs or the social factors on the one hand and the inventiveness sort of pushing from the other hand but Hollerith was weary he was diagnosed with a bad heart in ordered to slow down in 1911 Hollerith sold his shares in the tabulating machine company for over $1,000,000 Hollerith former company was merged with three others and led by master salesman Thomas Watson grew into a major supplier of business equipment in 1924 Watson renamed the enterprise International Business Machines IBM because of Hollerith the name IBM would become synonymous with computers by the 1930s as America limped out of the Great Depression companies like Burroughs and IBM foresaw continued growth and success over the next decade progress would be slow it would take the destructive forces of world war 2 to give the computer its next great advance Herman Hollerith remarked I will have in future years the satisfaction of being the first statistical engineer he also had the satisfaction of becoming the first computer millionaire World War two spurred the development of the true computer and in the turbulent days before the German blitzkrieg smashed Poland a young Polish engineer walked into the British Embassy in Warsaw and made an astounding proposition he offered to sell the British the secret to the unbreakable German code machine the Enigma the British desperately wanted to crack the Enigma machine used by German commanders to encrypt their most secret military radio messages British intelligence supplied the engineer with a fake diplomatic passport and smuggled him out of Warsaw while guarded by French agents in Paris the engineer provided details on the code machines ingenious operation in the enigma plugs were rearranged to conform to that day's code book combination the power of enigma was that this plug arrangement constantly varied how letters were coded throughout a transmission the number of letter variations was astronomical so high the Germans consider their code machine to be unbreakable but the British now knew how the machine worked they realized that they could very quickly try different key combinations on a small part of the code then when that small part was broken and the key revealed the rest could be decoded effortlessly north of London at a secret installation in Bletchley Park British codebreakers built a computer like machine to do just that Colossus Colossus used over 2000 vacuum tubes to process 25,000 characters per second Colossus could only do one job but it could compute very quickly it's deciphered German transmissions were called the ultra secret the most closely guarded secret of the war while the British were now able to read German messages the question was how to take advantage of the secrets without tipping off the Germans that their code had been compromised the most senior Allied commanders were privy to ultra material but had to exercise caution and reacting to it so as not to tip their hand Ultra information was never revealed to anyone in a position to be captured by the enemy field commanders often went into battle lacking information on the enemy that was known to their superiors from ultra dispatches the secrecy may have also kept Colossus from prominence in the history of computers while colossus was breaking german codes across the atlantic another computational device was under construction the machine which would directly influence the design of all future computers was being built in Philadelphia in response to the attack on Pearl Harbor American industry quickly became a powerhouse producer of the implements of war but by 1943 there was a critical shortage of a surprising component of the war machine firing tables for artillery pieces firing tables allowed Gunners to correctly aim their guns in different ranges altitudes temperatures and wind conditions to calculate these tables required enormous numbers of calculations which at that time were done by human beings incidentally these people who did them were called computers that was their job title and they operated adding machines mechanical adding machines primarily and they would simply step through these calculations and produce these tables one of the Centers of firing table calculation was at the Moore School of Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia midway through the war it became clear that the tables could not be produced fast enough this was a crisis without tables new guns could not be shipped to the troops overseas to break the bottleneck a Moore School physicist John Mauchly made a fantastic proposal he suggested that he could build a giant electronic computer that would be able to figure a single trajectory in 100 seconds the army desperate for a device to help them win the war reluctantly committed to the proposed cost of half a million dollars mock Lee and a brilliant graduate student in electrical engineering presper eckert set to work constructing ENIAC the electronic numerical integrator and computer driven by the knowledge that friends and relatives were dying in battle while they worked in Philadelphia the team of young engineers toiled incessantly but could they create such a monster everything had to be invented from from square one and then they had to build it and then they had to test it and they had to put it all together and make it work reliably and then they had to learn how to program it nothing close to any AK had ever been conceived nearly 100 feet long and weighing 30 tons it contained almost 70,000 resistors 10,000 capacitors 6,000 switches and 18,000 delicate vacuum tubes vacuum tubes burn out just like light bulbs in a machine that contained 18,000 vacuum tubes it was likely that at least one would always be burned out crippling the Machine presper eckert found the key to making any action he had the vacuum tubes build to high tolerance he critically tested them and then he ran them at low power if you took these measures you might be able to get the machine to work for 10 minutes half an hour at a time since the Machine calculated so quickly you can get a lot of work done in half hour and so that's what happened after two years of intense work Eenie AK was complete a few months after the Japanese surrender although it wasn't finished in time to help win the war Eenie AK was a marvelous machine huge in heart it could perform up to 5,000 additions 357 multiplications and 38 divisions every second by far and away the most calm phlex machine of its time Eenie AK still lacked many of the qualities of a modern computer it's memory was very primitive it had to be laborious Lee rewired each time it was programmed and couldn't make logical decisions based on its calculations but with tremendous expenditures of time and money ENIAC had proved that computers could be constructed however except for arcane scientific calculation did anyone really want them the question lingered could anyone build a really practical computer during development of the mark 2 computer in 1945 a relay inside the computer failed and researchers found a dead moth inside this is the origin of the computer terms bug and debugging just before the end of the Second World War an advisor to the ENIAC project John von Neumann wrote a paper that was to greatly affect the next stage of computer design von Neumann possessed a photographic memory an incomparably fast mind and was one of the principal scientists involved in the Manhattan Project the building of the atomic bomb he was also an advisor on ENIAC the paper von Neumann wrote after the war delineated the structure of a modern computer the paper drew heavily on the work building the ENIAC yet was undeniably augmented by Von Neumanns brilliance Von Neumanns computer was to have a processing unit a controlling unit memory input and output but most importantly in the evolution of computers it would hold its programming internally in its memory internally held programs give computers their our power and versatility because an internal program can modify what it does based on data or the results of computations in machines like the ENIAC programming had been hardwired or fixed so the machine was much less adaptable the idea for storing the program internally was the last key to developing the true computer but whether it was von Norman's idea has long been hotly debated Eckert and Mauchly claimed they formulated internal programs as a natural part of their work building e nyet although they couldn't stop and incorporate the idea into the machine but many who read the paper assumed that all the genius behind it was from the great von neumann he was one of the most widely regarded mathematicians in the world Eckert and Mauchly were relatively obscure dexhart was a young man just out of school MOC Lee had been a professor at a fairly out-of-the-way College they didn't have international reputations Eckert and Mauchly weren't included as authors in the paper they felt they had been betrayed the most important effect of von Norman's paper was to spur computer development Eckert and Mauchly moved into offices in Philadelphia hired a staff and set up a company that would build a business computer they called it the UNIVAC they signed a fixed cost contract to build a univac for the Census Bureau rolled up their sleeves and went to work unfortunately building UNIVAC turned out to be a monumental undertaking as they struggled to make UNIVAC real they also struggled financially and needed to be bailed out by a series of larger companies they eventually joined forces with Remington ran a flourishing typewriter manufacturer in March of 1951 after six years of toil they finally delivered the first UNIVAC to the Census Bureau unlike any act the UNIVAC was an entire computer system designed for business univac could be programmed for a variety of data processing tasks compact tape drives held data and results were automatically printed but even with the backing of Remington Rand sales remained slow very few people understood how useful a computer could be that perception changed dramatically one night in 1952 [Applause] in a brilliant public relations move Remington Rand arranged with CBS to use a UNIVAC on election night to predict the outcome of the presidential race between Dwight Eisenhower and Adlai Stevenson polls said the race was too close to call no one had ever programmed a computer to make electoral predictions Eckert and Mauchly z' engineers entered their customized algorithms right until airtime the operators fed in the results of selected eastern precincts and at 9 p.m. ran their program UNIVAC predicted a landslide for Eisenhower but the poll said differently the operators didn't believe what UNIVAC was telling them and assumed their programming was at fault quickly they reprogrammed the machine to better reflect what the experts predicted as the night went on it became clear that Eisenhower would indeed win by a landslide CBS sheepishly announced they hadn't believed the machines when all the votes were tallied univox initial prediction was off by less than 1% of the final result an extraordinary prediction even by today's standards the power and utility of the computer had been proved after the success of UNIVAC various companies began to see a future in computer development new companies like Burroughs as well as old giants like General Electric jumped into the computer business but most large American businesses were dependent on the data processing systems provided by one company the office machine monolith IBM IBM had no computers IBM's aging leader the legendary sales guru Thomas Watson senior was not eager to jump into the enormous Li costly development of computers computer back then contained thousands of vacuum tubes occupied you know one or more large room rooms and required a small army of attendants to run IBM and MIT most other people didn't see how computers could be used in business it took Watson's son Tom Watson jr. to lead IBM into the computer age as Watson himself recalls the move was spurred by IBM's customers who were fed up with bulky punch cards I remember particularly Jim maddened then president of the Metropolitan Life who said we're gonna cancel our IBM just the minute we learn to do this in tapes because three floors and the Metropolitan Life Building are used to store the cards of our customers accounts and if we keep going the way we will they'll occupy the whole building but we were threatened into this progress faced with the prospect of losing customers Tom Watson jr. ordered the development of a computer IBM's famous salesforce told their customers a computer would arrive soon in fact it was still being planned finally in 1953 IBM unveiled the 701 although technologically inferior to the univac the 701 and other early IBM computers were hits with the customers because they conformed to standard IBM systems and support IBM saw the future and it was computers they redirected corporate efforts to computer development IBM's efforts paid off and by the beginning of the 1960s the company's large mainframe computers dominated the business but the development of the computer was about to go in an altogether different direction we choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things not because they are easy but because they are hard in 1961 America was trailing Russia in the race for space 1961 a year of achievement for Soviet scientists in the race for space Yuri Gagarin has become the first human to orbit the earth and crowds in Moscow's Red Square salute the 27 year old cosmonaut as NASA engineers began planning the lunar mission they realized a computer as powerful as one currently the size of a room must be onboard the engineers wondered is such a small computer even possible the first great breakthrough that would lead to computer miniatures a ssin had already been made on December 23rd 1947 when three scientists at Bell Labs William Shockley Walter Brattain and John Bardeen invented the transistor formed on the semiconductor silicon the transistor could replace large vacuum tubes in computers compared to vacuum tubes transistors were tiny required little power and produced little heat the breakthrough was sufficiently important that the three inventors of the transistor were awarded the Nobel Prize a computer that could navigate to the moon and back would require thousands of transistors and although small they were not nearly small enough the next step in miniaturization occurred in 1959 when Robert Noyce and Jack Kilby engineers for rival transistor manufacturers independently came up with breakthroughs that led to the same revolutionary idea an entire network of electronic components transistors diodes capacitors and resistors could be incorporated onto a single chip of silicon the great innovation in electronics was called the integrated circuit using integrated circuits a 10-ounce computer was built that was as powerful as a 30-pound one made of transistors but integrated circuits had an inherent problem they were difficult to manufacture and therefore were expensive but the space race had started just in time to pay for them in 1969 five thousand integrated circuits made up the heart of each of two identical computers one on the lunar orbiter and one on the lander for their size these were the most powerful computers on earth soon to leave the earth entirely as Neil Armstrong took one small step in the lunar dust Intel engineer Ted Hoff was making the last great leap in miniatures a ssin developing an idea that would put an entire computer on a chip of silicon the microprocessor the genie would be out of its bottle beginning the computer revolution and changing the world forever IBM took the lead in computer sales in 1956 from Remington ran by selling just 76 computers Apollo 13 intended as the third lunar landing has just lost two fuel cells and was venting oxygen into space 200,000 miles from Earth soon the second oxygen tank would begin losing pressure the astronauts would die unless they could precisely align their spacecraft and fire their rocket to slingshot themselves around the moon and back to earth critical to the alignment was Apollo state-of-the-art guidance computer a new trajectory was figured the all-or-nothing rocket firing was made the Apollo 13 crew miraculously returned to Earth with the help of their small and powerful computer by the last Apollo mission two and a half years later computers as powerful as those on Apollo would be available to everyone that was because soon before the Apollo 13 flight an engineer at Intel Ted Hoff had come up with an ingenious idea Hoff had been told to design 12 separate integrated circuits to make a Japanese pocket calculator he suggested placing the entire processing unit on a chip and programming it just like a computer Intel developed the idea and by 1970 they had a working model of a microprocessor it was the invention not just of integrated circuits but of a particular kind of integrated circuit the microprocessor that makes today's personal computers possible smaller than a fingernail a microprocessor contains many of the components of a computer including a control unit a clock and areas where data can be stored and modified processing power was about to become very cheap and very compact in the mid-1970s two friends Steven Wozniak and Steve Jobs were manufacturing a small computer in a Palo Alto garage Steve Jobs was a college dropout but he was a college dropout with a difference he was very intelligent had a lot of street smarts he was also extremely ambitious I think perhaps more important than that he knew the other Steve Steve Wozniak had created something exceptional Steve Jobs sold his Volkswagen and Steven Wozniak sold his HP calculator to finance their company that would revolutionize the computer industry jobs tracks all over the San Francisco Bay Area to find buyers for the $500 machine which they called the Apple one the Apple one was large and unwieldy jobs realized they needed a new design for a computer that anyone could use Wozniak began to build the Apple to the fate of Apple changed dramatically when in the fall of 1976 a visitor to Wozniak's garage saw the prototype of the Apple 2 the visitor was Mike Markkula who at 32 had retired from Intel a millionaire he was so impressed by the Apple 2 that he joined Apple and put it on a sound business footing the Apple 2 was introduced to the public and sales skyrocketed but in 1978 even with the success of the Apple 2 using a computer wasn't easy the early Apple computers as well as all early personal computers did not have graphical interfaces they didn't have mice they had what's known as a command-line interface that is you typed instructions into the computer and your instructions appeared as text on the screen a simple to use computer had been conceived by a computer scientist named Doug Engelbart he demonstrated his vision in 1968 at the fall join computer conference in San Francisco wielding a keyboard and a pointing device he called a mouse angle Bart worked with a computer 30 miles away linked by microwaves and demonstrated word processing and hypertext many in the audience went home inspired but one group alone was to fulfill angle Bart's vision that group was just down the road from San Francisco at Xerox PARC in 1970 Xerox dominated the copier industry but thought the future might be in computers a young Xerox executive Robert Taylor worked with the team to transform the way the computer industry was perceived as Robert Taylor himself remembers the chairman of Xerox at the time Peter McCulloch made a speech where he said that that Xerox was going to become the architecture of information so I asked his speechwriter not too long after that what did that mean because I had an idea about what it ought to mean and so did some other people and the speechwriter said well he didn't really know but it's a ringing phrase and so I said well we're gonna make it happen Robert Taylor hired many of the country's top computer scientists and challenged them to create an easy-to-use personal computer the result was the alto which incorporated many of the innovations and personal computers we take for granted today all developed at Xerox PARC the alto used a mouse a graphical interface built in networking and printed on a laser printer Xerox developed the star the commercial model of the alto but it never sold well xerox was a large and very successful photocopier company and it didn't really understand computers didn't appreciate the brilliance the originality and the enormous commercial worth of the computer developments at Xerox PARC but Steve Jobs did when he visited Xerox PARC in 1979 and saw the Alto he returned to Apple and immediately set to work on what would become the Macintosh computer the first popular personal computer similar to those used today what made the Macintosh easy to use was its operating system and applications otherwise known as software increasingly software was dominating the advances made in computers Bill Gates the young president of a computing software company Microsoft understood the importance of software to the future of computers and parlayed this vision into a vast software Empire making him the richest man in the world the dream of a machine that could think had come from a mechanical device to an electronic one where the bits of coded information that ran it were as important perhaps more important than the machine that they controlled this may have been the best evidence that a thinking machine had arrived and could now be placed on your desk soon nearly half the jobs in America would use the computer within the decade microprocessors would be everywhere incorporated into automobiles appliances and scientific instruments significantly increasing their capability and reliability unprecedented fortunes would be made in businesses that hadn't existed a decade before education would be transformed forever as the access to information would be transferred from libraries and universities to your desktop the earth would shrink with unprecedented speed as a worldwide communication grid became accessible to anyone with a computer and modem and even now the evolution of a thinking machine isn't finished computers have already changed the way we live and they'll change the way we explore our world and other worlds in the 21st century they will take us to distant galaxies and they will connect us right here on earth computers will continue to become more interconnected they will continue to become smaller faster cheaper and software will become more powerful minds that have yet to be formed will mold this power to create new marvels inconceivable to us today

37 Comments

  1. Yordan S said:

    What about John Atanasoff???

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  2. AdrianJames Habla said:

    TAI TAI WE NEED TO SUMMARIZE THIS WHOLE 45 MINS VIDEO🤦‍♂

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  3. Mc Angelo Balagat said:

    We need to summarized this all oh no I don't understand everything!

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  4. IHate Cheese said:

    and now, my teacher is letting me do a summarization of this… i cant even understand everything

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  5. MijAdrian said:

    Hello labas mga step HAHAHAHAHAHA

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  6. Dad Gamer said:

    This documentary is horrible. No mention of Alan Turning. Garbage

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  7. Crow said:

    A LITTLE FREAKING OLD

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  8. ideaquest said:

    Imagine all these developments, computing, information and communications are now held in the palm of your hand in a slim mobile phone. Awesome how far we have come and what the world will be like in another 20 years.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  9. Maitrayan Ghosh Roy said:

    Computers was humans

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  10. KR696 राजपूत said:

    23 years old video..

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  11. stephen hawking said:

    yo what the frick those dude killed him by just playing serenades

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  12. stephen hawking said:

    yo y'all have any more of them floppy's

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  13. staywoke said:

    This was not made in 2018

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  14. Sava said:

    Hello, greetings from future!

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  15. Thesavagemeister77 said:

    The fact that the like to dislike ratio is less than 6 to 1 is honestly sad. Yes the title was misleading, but this is literally the chain of events that lead to where the world is now, and what gave everyone complaining or appreciating this video the ability to do so. This started everything

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  16. DaBluePenguin 2 said:

    Yall heard of Gracehopper?

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  17. J Kerfont said:

    The thumbnail is fucking H.H. Holmes.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  18. GameXtra said:

    Hi
    Edit: Hi

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  19. TurboBass said:

    I love all these old documentary background musics. I wish I could find them somewhere.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  20. Amarjeet singh said:

    computer History In Hindi
    https://youtu.be/v5vLFhbWPew

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  21. Bruno Salas said:

    Seems interesting for someone like me who is into computers. 😀

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  22. V H said:

    "software come from discs"

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  23. Twan Marijnissen said:

    No Alan Turing and Conrad Zuse? Shame on you!

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  24. Jasmyn Renee said:

    Very good information.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  25. Documentaries Channel said:

    NETFLIX FREE PREMIUM ACCOUNT 1 YEAR LINK IN DESCRIPTION

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  26. Lolzzn12 said:

    "they will take us to distant galaxies" damn, that hit me right in the feels /:

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  27. Lolzzn12 said:

    This is an awesome documentary with very accurate and detailed history of the computer, i don't know why so many people are complaining lmfao

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  28. Finbarr McGrath said:

    I enjoyed the piece of about the abacus!

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  29. SevenDeMagnus said:

    Cool. Thank you God for Babbage's genius and the transistors.

    God bless, Proverbs 31

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  30. ObscurityIsBest said:

    The title is definitely click-bait, but the content of the documentary was pretty much what I was looking for.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  31. Britt Pomales said:

    2019.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  32. jogman49 said:

    2018 ? Yeah right

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  33. Mickelodian Surname said:

    2018? Really? Ya think?

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  34. Remained Unnamed said:

    Wow the union between electronics and music is awesomely cryptic.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  35. Alibaba Jackson said:

    8:40 feminazis would go apeshit because of happiness at this part, but they don't because they don't watch topics for the brain 😀

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  36. Talon Martin said:

    Lying ass for views

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  37. SebastjanD said:

    2018? hehehe.. must be legit when i see 4:3 screen ratio.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply

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