The Future of Computing Part 2: Quantum Computing



there is an epic battle happening right now between two technologies the first is classical computing technology that has been around for about 70 years and is currently the most powerful and useful of the two while classical computing has improved by leaps and bounds over the years further advancement is getting more difficult as it pushes the limits of physics the second is quantum computing technology that has been around for about 20 years quantum computing is potential is so great and the technology is so new we have only scratched the surface on what can be done with the technology and it's only a matter of time until a quantum computer will be able to be the best supercomputers at solving a problem and this is the incredible moment when quantum supremacy is achieved lately there has been many headlines about the race that quantum supremacy and Google claims to be close to achieving it but before we explore what's going on with Google let's quickly go over how a classical computer compares to a quantum computer with a classical computer the basic unit of information is a bit which can represent a 0 or a 1 so take 2 bits from a classical computer those bits can be in four possible States 0 0 0 1 1 0 or 1 1 and classical computers need to stack incredible amounts of bits to improve its processing power the best supercomputers today have hundreds of trillions of bits but with a quantum computer the basic unit of information is a quantum bit or qubit two qubits can represent the same four states of 0 0 0 1 1 0 or 1 1 but it can also represent all four states at the same time this is because quantum computers harness the phenomenon of quantum mechanics called superposition the second phenomenon of quantum mechanics that quantum computers harness is entanglement and this is where things get in for every qubit that is added to a quantum computer the amount of potential States grows exponentially the best classical supercomputers today with hundreds of trillions of bits can simulate a quantum computer of just 56 qubits which was accomplished by IBM in 2017 and when you raise the number of qubits to just 260 the size of the classical computer you would need to simulate it would need more bits than there are atoms in the known universe not stars but atoms all right now we have a grasp of the power of qubits let's now talk about what's happening with Google Google started researching quantum computing in 2006 using hardware from Canada's d-wave then in 2014 Google hired John martini one of the world's most foremost experts on quantum computing martini spent years as the physics professor at the University of California Santa Barbara and he brought his whole team with them when he was hired so with martini and his team Google started developing their own quantum computing technology and they recently unveiled their latest quantum processor the mighty Bristlecone the Bristlecone is the most powerful quantum processor by far equipped with 72 qubits besting IBM's 50 qubit and Intel's 49 qubit processors google has been secretive about the chip since they unveiled it back in March but it seems it will be mainly be a testbed for their research for improving every rates this is because up to this point one of the major challenges of quantum computers is that qubits are very unstable and easily disturbed the processors are so sensitive that even unintended sounds can cause algorithmic failure and on top of that the processors must be kept extremely cold close to absolute zero at these temperatures atoms and molecules are more stable lessening the chance of qubits to flip from one state to another so to fix error rates Google has developed a quantum error correction technique that carefully choreographed series of logic operations on the qubits to detect where errors have occurred they applied the technique with bristlecones predecessor a nine qubit processor achieving their best error rate of 0.6% although the bristlecones processor has eight times the qubits as its predecessor Google strives to improve on that error rate while Google seems to be leading the race to achieve quantum supremacy the race fans internationally in addition to Google IBM Intel Microsoft and various startups and academic labs China and the EU are also competing to be the first to achieve quantum supremacy the Chinese government has committed 10 billion dollars to build a new national quantum lab additionally the Chinese e-commerce giant Alibaba who are late comers to the quantum computing development scene completed an 11 qubit chip back in February and they don't believe Google will achieve quantum supremacy with the Bristlecone based on their simulation of the chip using a collection of powerful servers but Google countered these claims saying that Alibaba simulations weren't detailed enough to be definitive and further Martini believes that Google will achieve quantum supremacy by the end of the year and it will be a huge milestone for the company and the technology at large if they can pull it off but quantum computing is bigger than the coming event of quantum supremacy and there is the beginnings of an industry that is starting to bud and this brings us back to Canada's d-wave which we touched on earlier d-wave was founded in 1999 and is the world's first quantum computing company and they claim to be the leader in the development and delivery of quantum computing systems and software their mission is to unlock the power of quantum computing to solve the world's most challenging problems and their systems are being used by world-class organizations and institutions including Lockheed Martin Google NASA Volkswagen and many others on top of that d-wave has been granted over 160 US patents and has published over 100 peer-reviewed papers and leading scientific journals and in 2011 after 12 years of research they released the world's first commercial quantum computer at a price of 10 million dollars but d-wave is aggressively working towards getting quantum computing to the masses back in February of this year d-wave raised 50 million dollars from Canada's PSP investments and they hope to raise hundreds of millions of dollars more later this year they aim to use this money to hire software developers to help them push their quantum computing technology to the cloud and by sending quantum computing to the cloud every day developers will be able to experiment with the technology and this will speed up research as more engineers learn how to work with the technology you see for quantum computing technology to become useful and become an industry there are two areas that researchers and engineers need to work on we have already covered the first area which is to develop quantum computers that has close to no error rates as possible and the second area is to simply have more people that know how to develop software for the technology because it's very difficult for programmers to work with today's quantum computing technology not only do you have to deal with error rates you also have to deal with limited windows of time you see the window of time when qubits are in super positions is very short but technology has improved over time again superposition is when qubits are in both 0 & 1 States at the same time back in the late 1990s superposition only lasted for a few nanoseconds and a nanosecond is one billionth of a second by the way but by today quantum computers are able to hold super positions for around 90 microseconds microseconds being one millionth of a second so there has been a huge improvement over the past 20 years so again there is a need to have more programmers learning how to create quantum algorithms but the wave isn't the only company working towards bringing quantum computing to the masses IBM and Microsoft are also working towards that same goal iBM has made quantum computing available in the cloud since May 2016 starting with the 5 cubic computer and they call this the IBM quantum experience the IBM quantum experience has facilitated more than 60,000 users from more than 1500 universities 300 high schools and 300 private institutions and IBM have collectively run 1.7 million experiments the members of the research community has also probably shhhhht more than 35 research papers using IBM's cloud platform as a testbed for ideas but even with more researchers and engineers having access to quantum computing technology there are still only a handful of experts that can program software for quantum computers and this brings us to the startup company Zappa de computing Zappa de computing was established in 2017 with the aim to commercialize software for quantum computing developed at Harvard University the company recently raised 5.4 million dollars and they plan to serve as a quantum algorithm superstore and offer a broad range of ready-made software that companies and various entities can purchase or lease by using sapidus services companies will be able to use quantum computing without having an in-house quantum specialist and Zappa has worked out a partnership with Harvard who has licensed algorithms that were developed at the University it's not clear yet what algorithms will be useful in what fields but the company will slowly build their library over time in the meantime Zapata will focus on a gorilla's for chemistry and materials such as modeling molecules which is difficult to do on today's best supercomputers if Cepeda is able to develop algorithms that will allow computers to model molecules there would be an explosion of simulation data available to scientists that will ultimately lead to advances and various technologies such as battery technology similar to classical computers early days quantum computing isn't that useful or practical yet but let's explore some areas that experts believe will be impacted by quantum computing experts believe quantum computing will play a big role in the development of artificial intelligence because AI involves processing vast amounts of data in order to calculate the probabilities of a multitude of choices another field that experts anticipate quantum computing helping with is financial modeling with quantum computing scientists will be able to simulate a complex array of scenarios that are randomly generated in order to produce models of financial markets so there's so many other fields that could benefit from harnessing quantum computing such as weather forecasting particle physics autonomous vehicles and many more but this technology is still in its infancy and only time will tell whether we'll be able to harness the potential upon them computing many experts actually believe that classical computing will always perform better at certain tasks here's professor Andrea Morello from university of south wells to explain the reason why quantum computers are not a replacement for classical no no they're not universally faster they're only faster for special types of calculations where you can use the fact that you have all these quantum superpositions available to you at the same time to do some kind of computational parallelism if you just want to watch a video in height in high definition or browse the internet or write some document in Word they're not gonna give you any particular true and if you need to use a classical algorithm to get yourself so you should not think of a quantum computer as something where every operation is faster in fact every operation is probably gonna be slower than in the computer you have an address but it's an computer where the number of operations required to arrive at the result is exponentially smaller so the improvement is not in the speed of the individual operation is in the total number of operations you need to arrive at the result but that is only the case in particular types of calculations in particular algorithm is not universally alright and I would like to end this with a cool concept and that is according to physicist dr. Ruth Alton whatever complex devices that we use in the future whether it be tablets or something yet to be invented it will likely be a hybrid computer run with a quantum processing unit and one with the classical processor so it looks like in the future there will not be a battle between quantum and classical computing technology it looks like we'll actually be using the best of what both has to offer all right that's all I have for now I hope you enjoyed your journey if you did please leave a like and subscribe I am Neil scribe and I'll see you on the next journey hey guys I can't wait to see quantum computing technology continued to improve quantum processors are so sensitive I honestly don't see quantum computing being used outside of the cloud it's really hard to imagine quantum chips being inside whatever devices we use in the future but I'm hopeful the technology will be able to help with a lot of the world's problems but my mind actually went to how cool open-world video games can potentially be with the power of quantum computing imagine a future installment of grand theft auto or elder scrolls with immersive complex worlds filled with non-player characters programmed with truly dynamic responses and reactions with memories of past events in the game which you can hear them talk about in a realistic way imagine characters that have dynamic loops similar to hosts on west world loops that the characters will be able to adapt to when broken that would be so cool anyway thank you all so much for watching I'll see you next time

23 Comments

  1. Ian Eune said:

    The dream rig of the near future: Bcone 1080 QPU with CoolerMaster Nitro, IBM OPTICAL CPU+memory integrated chip plasMONSTER p7, Hitachi Quartz State Drive 1.5 ZB, Lightbolt 3.0 direct fiberoptic cable drive, Li-fi drive with local BCI (Brain-Computer Interface) NeuroLink 2.0 support, Samsung Odyssey QLED Contact Lens, and a Logitech GamingPro Sensory Deprivation Tank twin size, with multi-color lights option of course 🙂

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  2. Joe Harrison said:

    There's no proof that quantum computers are able to solve NPC problems. There are problems that fall within BQP and NP and not in P, but it probably won't be the magic bullet most people expect it to be.

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  3. Ramiro Estevez said:

    Can someone tell me the song?

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  4. Ringo Garvin said:

    Background muzak was a big distraction.

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  5. Ramiro Estevez said:

    whats the song??

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  6. Dellinger the fighting fish said:

    I want to go to 2050 now!!!

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  7. Chyn fu said:

    i think quantum computer works best in outer space where it is cold

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  8. Oromo Kalenjin said:

    Outr Instrumental is superbly.

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  9. Griots Blood said:

    Good for modelling radioisotopes!

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  10. Corrine Tsang said:

    The proton quantum chip will replaced the silicon chip in the I-phone and computers.Jin Xiomin of Shanghai Jiaotong University  has developed the proton quantum chip.Pan Jianwei is developing a quantum computer from China s 10 billion dollars research facilities in Heifei.

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  11. Connect to Soul said:

    😇 Say thanks to you for your incredible unique video, it is indeed very much appreciated and I definitely value your hard work !👍

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  12. coldflame said:

    What kinds of abuses will predatory sociopath corporations come up with for this technology? Hmmm, I wonder…..

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  13. David N said:

    I'm so glad I stumbled upom this channel. Keep up the high quality videos.

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  14. chelez said:

    Roose Bolton?!
    Is he back?

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  15. Robert Paul Guidry said:

    skeptical.. programming for paralle CPUs is a challenge that I am not sure they've really addressed and is commonly know for programming. No throw in a quantum computer that can be zero or one at the same time. skeptical….

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  16. IndigoXYZ18 said:

    Can you do a video on neuromorphic computing?

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  17. Jeff Bingaman said:

    Are you going to do something on the new finding of NASA that they are going to release thursday?

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  18. Philip Lepoutre said:

    Woo! Awesome video, wish I could give you some negative feedback, but I just can't. The work you put in really shows itself, I just wish more people would hear about your channel..Oh, talking about fame, you just passed the 30k subscriber mark! Good job buddy, you officially have more people following you than the population of San Marino! I have a friend who is at Southampton University, and he was talking to me about an initiative that reasearchers from his university undertook..Take a look: https://www.southampton.ac.uk/news/2016/02/5d-data-storage-update.page I would love to see a video in which this is also included..Am I asking for too much? 😉 Have a good one man, keep it up. By the way, the stickers still didn't arrive yet, hope they aren't lost or anything..

    PS: Could you put the sources in the description next time please? 🙂

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  19. Lodewijk Bruning said:

    Very well explained. The whole quantum computing always was some vague, hocus pocus subject to me. Once again you taught me something new. Well done!

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  20. Bea Al said:

    Great video, I've been watchin you since the beginning of your channel pretty much and this really shows how far you've come. Can't wait for your next video.

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  21. Federico Galimberti said:

    I should add that in the world of classical computing there is the variable of light instead electricity as a medium for computing. This gives classical computing a new lease of life for improvement in speed.

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  22. Federico Galimberti said:

    Really good to watch!! The question begs now where is the watershed in number of calculations needed in 1 nanosecond which makes classical computation more suitable to quantum..?
    Thanks NeoScribe for this worthwhile video. Will definitely watch it again a couple of times

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  23. AlfaFilms said:

    This level of research deserves more attention on YouTube. Well done man, coming from a loyal subscriber

    May 22, 2019
    Reply

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