Satellite Technology Overview



all satellites are assigned one or more sets of frequencies for interacting with a network of earth stations a frequency can be defined as the number of times that an alternating current passes through one complete cycle in one second of time one cycle per second is also called one Hertz named after the 19th century radio pioneer heinrich hertz 1,000 cycles per second is abbreviated 1 kilohertz 1 million a megahertz and 1 billion a Giga Hertz each frequency has a specific wavelength which is the actual distance that the radio wave travels during one complete cycle with the higher the frequency the shorter the wavelength the most efficient way to capture any radio signal is to use an antenna with physical dimensions that are a multiple or sub multiple of the desired signals wavelength now wavelength is a distance that an electromagnetic wave travels during one cycle it can be defined as a wavelength equals the speed of light a constant divided by the frequency so we can determine the length of a single wave if we know its frequencies the electromagnetic spectrum is the entire continuum of frequencies used to propagate signals through space within this spectrum each subset or frequency band has its own unique properties for example the very low frequency and low frequency bands between 3 and 300 kilohertz are primarily used for communicating with submarines and ships at sea that's because the long wavelengths of these signals propagate very well over and even under the water surface local AM radio stations use the medium wave frequencies from 500 to 1600 Keller Earth's because the wavelengths generated within this band propagate very well along the Earth's surface over considerable distances by contrast international radio stations use the shortwave bands between three and thirty megahertz uplinks come in two basic configurations one is a permanent facility that is mounted onto the ground and serves as a gateway station for regularly communicating with one or more satellites in geostationary orbit fixed up links are often used to distribute live or tape events to millions of satellite receive sites via domestic or international spacecraft these facilities at int'l sat for example contain the technical expertise and resources needed to support full bandwidth audio and video for viewing virtually any place in the world the other type of satellite uplink now in use worldwide is the mobile teleport which can transmit from almost any conceivable location reached by Road live sporting events for example can be broadcast live right from the site of the event itself breaking his silence today's mobile teleports operate almost exclusively in the kayuu band frequency range since these transportable terminals do not share their frequencies with terrestrial microwave systems they can arrive on the scene without having to worry about causing interference to other communication networks down on the ground news organizations can therefore move a satellite news gathering vehicle or sng quickly from site to site to uplink news stories as they happen some KUB end up links can even function as miniature TV studios this particular UNICEF vehicle which contains rack-mounted recording playback and monitoring facilities can put a signal onto any given satellite within fifteen minutes of arriving on the scene motorized jacks to the front and rear of the chassis are used to stabilize the body of the vehicle to ensure antenna pointing accuracy over time this motorized antenna can travel more than 180 degrees in azimuth and 90 degrees in elevation moreover the satellite downlink section of the van provides technicians in the field with the ability to monitor the quality of their own transmissions as well as receive signals originating from other locations the motorized antenna is adjusted to the proper coordinates while the technician looks for an indication if the antenna is bore sighted on to the correct satellite qualitative measurements are then made through the use of a rack mounted spectrum analyzer evening what we would like to think we're getting there we're not there yet but we do supply a significant number of the fortune 1000 s with VSAT technologies well 20 years ago the value driver was as you mentioned lower-cost and in reaching a lot of sites today we're in this new world of expanding broadband applications and both internet and intranet because corporations of course have requirements beyond just internet access they we now have all the new potential for broadband which with today's satellites means media-rich or video content delivery to a lot of sites throughout North America on a similar single cost and single quality of service basis and what's important is the companies that in this realm of emerging broadband don't really care about the technology they want a certain greatest service they want it to be fully managed and so we're seeing opportunities and our businesses evolving as well to follow this trend whereas a managed service provider V SATs are very much an integral part of a combination of technologies whether DSL cable modem fiber it's not the case anymore that one technology does it all the best besets an important part but it's very much now an integral part of an IT strategy that covers multiple technologies these sets have come down in size and cost dramatically by 10 to 20 times depending on what year you measure and we're now in a mode where in fact the fastest growing part of our huge business is consumer satellite broadband so the cost is now below $500 for the equipment and that's a complete modem router and the satellite dish which is typically less than one meter sighs and the capability is every bit as good as most CSL or typical cable modem type services very affordable our plans start at 59.95 a month and we're signing up over ten thousand a month many of these are small businesses as well as consumers so we've gone from large enterprise to medium enterprise from from thousands of sites to hundreds of sites to tens of sites to one site so it scales very nicely because of the low cost of the terminal now today a geostationary satellite as you know is essentially a mirror in the sky it has transponders and communications come up to the satellite from a terminal down to a network operations center where the routing and control logic takes place and all the customer care and back-end billing systems logic and then it goes back up to the satellite and then off to one or more terminal sites as the opening years of the 21st century have repeatedly demonstrated all ground-based communication systems can be devastated by both natural disasters and terrorist attacks satellite is the only true alternative path to any terrestrial technology so whether the network is fiber DSL cable modem landline twisted pair doesn't matter it's subject to the same conditions of a disaster should it strike whether physical or natural 9/11 was a horrific wake-up call that revealed just how ill-prepared many government agencies were when it came to dealing with the communications problems that can take place in the wake of a massive disaster one of the biggest problems that they had is when the towers collapsed they brought all the communications infrastructure for that area Manhattan with them down into the hole the third stage of deployment is to roll in a portable VSAT like this one what chef nurse says represents the real backbone of the response team's communication system this mobile trailer unit has its own built-in generator satellite modems and even an auto acquisition antenna however each time orbital data net sells an auto acquisition antenna the company insists that the customer also learned how to manually adjust it even though it will work automatically 99.5% of the time it's that other half of 1% that gets those phone calls at 3:00 in the morning when you hear nothing but police sirens on the other than the phone and the guy going we can't get a satellite locate almost every time it's going to work until that one time it has to work and that's when Karma's going to come get you but we also provide what we consider very high level training because our attitude is is they've got to know how to use this gear they gotta know how to repair this gear the third level is a full V set now the V set itself is quite compact but it still requires either a truck mounted unit something that comes in and can be set up in a matter of less than an hour so another level of that would then be a fixed V set with the mobile power unit maybe a generator which we saw for example after Katrina in in New Orleans this transportable VSAT terminal calculates its precise location using global positioning satellite technology and then runs the data through an automated procedure that sets the antennas azimuth and elevation angles to the coordinates required at the site the antenna sweeps back and forth in small increments until it locks on to the desired satellite after which the system automatically performs all the fine tune adjustments required to maximize the signal reception you

6 Comments

  1. Uberphat said:

    GPS is ground based, just like Satellite. The Dishes communicate with each other via Aether.

    June 27, 2019
    Reply
  2. Guo xin Wang said:

    你好stud

    June 27, 2019
    Reply
  3. nathanyamaha465 said:

    8:28 "A geostationary satellite, as you know, is essentially a mirror in the sky. It has transponders and communications come up to the satellite from the terminal, down to the network operations center where the routing and control logic takes place and all the customer care and back end billing system logic. Then it goes back up to the satellite and then off to one or more terminal sights."

    June 27, 2019
    Reply
  4. AYBIN. V. K said:

    Thanks

    June 27, 2019
    Reply
  5. mohammed sattar said:

    Very good ser thanks for this information

    June 27, 2019
    Reply
  6. Bhartiya JANMAT TV CHANNEL said:

    VERY NICE

    June 27, 2019
    Reply

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *