Quantum Computing with D-Wave



this quantum computer is too powerful let's see how it works hello world it's Suraj and anyone who has a laptop and an internet connection can now use a quantum computer to submit and run applications receiving solutions in seconds D waves leap service is the first cloud-based Quantum application environment that gives developers real-time access to a live quantum computer in this video we'll use the leap service to build a simple application to monitor a crop health sensor network quantum computing is already being applied to early real-world applications Volkswagen for example first used data from 418 taxis in Beijing to see how well a quantum computer could optimize the travel time of taxis in the city based on that success BW has stated that they are working on putting their algorithm to use commercially for traffic management in Lisbon recruit communications applied it to optimize the efficiency of matching advertisements to customers for web advertising and recently announced they could increase sales using a quantum algorithm from cryptography to medicine to financial markets quantum computing can be applied to almost every industry to solve real problems quantum mechanics is the body of scientific laws that describe the motion and interaction of photons electrons and other subatomic particles that make up our universe quantum computers exploit the rules of quantum mechanics to solve problems and these rules are hard for us to conceptualize because they're so different than what we're used to let's say we flipped a coin we know what will happen it'll go up then down and land on heads or tails these are all single truths but if we shrunk down to the subatomic level and again flip the coin there would be multiple truths the coin would be in both heads and tails simultaneously in the air it can 60% heads and 40% tails for example simultaneously and he would stay in midair until it's observed by some measuring device yet a human or machine pretty wild right to quote dr. Fineman if you think you understand quantum mechanics you don't understand quantum mechanics quantum computing exploits three key features of quantum mechanics for computing superposition entanglement and quantum tunneling particles can exist across all possible States simultaneously and this is known as a superposition of States an electron for example may exist in two possible spin States usually referred to as spin up and spin down simultaneously and sometimes groups of particles interact in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the others even when the particles are separated by a large distance this is called entanglement and quantum tunneling helps quantum computers explore the space of all possible solutions to a problem which can be thought of as low line points in a mountainous terrain by drilling through all the mountains simultaneously rather than having to go over them d-wave invited me to Vancouver to see their quantum computer in person and it was an incredible experience I saw that while a classical computer uses bits to perform computation their quantum machine uses qubits so instead of taking on the value of either 0 or 1 it can take on both at the same time in a superimposed state and these qubits can be entangled with each other to compute huge amounts of data and solve certain complex problems that would take classical computers millions of years to calculate the way this is done is not by using what we're used to the classical CMOS or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor but instead what's called a squid or superconducting quantum interference device aka quantum transistors instead of using silicon it uses a metal called niobium that when cooled below negative 206 four degrees Celsius becomes a superconductor and starts to exhibit quantum mechanical effects while a regular transistor only lets us encode two different states using voltages a qubit can encode two states as tiny magnetic fields that can support up or down simultaneously couplers connect qubits together such that they can exchange information easily as amazing as quantum machines are let's be clear they are not a replacement for classical computers instead they're complementary for a subset of classical problems quantum computing will make a dramatic difference we can in fact think of the quantum computation process as engineering the pattern of a complex set of waves in hope of channeling the flow towards the correct answer so let's take a look at the leap service first hand to see what it offers us we can sign up for an account on the landing page then we'll be able to access the dashboard here we can see how much time we have to use the quantum processing unit or qpu it doesn't seem like a lot of time but it is because quantum computers are so fast they can perform computations in just milliseconds there are a whole host of learning materials on this dashboard including educational videos research publications and real world case studies that show how their clients have used their quantum computer to solve customer problems the community support tab also leads to access to their technical forums that allow developers to share and learn about quantum computing my favorite part of the dashboard are the interactive demos that can be viewed in the browser to learn more about specific use cases as well as Jupiter notebooks that demonstrate different quantum algorithms in the cloud the ocean SDK is D waves Python library that wraps the API and lets us access the QP you in a simple three-step process after installing it using the popular pip installer we just set our API token and we can verify our connection to the QP you with the King command so for our use case imagine were a software-as-a-service startup that creates custom sensor networks for farmers so that they get crop information in real time allowing them to make smarter decisions we can build a network of devices that can sense water quality air pollution crop health and more then we'll want to create a security system that ensures that this system is not compromised by a third party and the data stolen will want to monitor network traffic as it moves between all of our routers we could place a traffic monitor on every single device in our network but that would be an expensive hardware cost instead what if we place network traffic sensors in the minimum amount of spots necessary such that the sensors are still able to monitor all traffic in the network we can consider this a graph problem nodes are sensor outposts full of different equipments and the edges represent all the paths that data flows through between these nodes we're trying to find what's called the minimum vertex cover a vertex cover is a set of vertices such that each edge of the graph is incident with at least one vertex in the set a minimum vertex cover then is the vertex cover of smallest size let's open our own cloud notebook using the leap service to solve an optimization problem we can visualize a simple example of this using the network x python package it's used to study the structure of complex networks after importing it we can create a 5 node star graph in a single line the minimum set of vertices that touch all edges is node 0 that's the solution to this simple problem but the general problem of finding us such a set is np-hard well first solve this problem on a CPU since first a small number of variables it's possible to compute classically in a relatively short time then we'll do it on the qpu to solve it on the CPU we'll initialize a sampler using the exact solver module of the official die mod API a solver is a resource that runs a problem and samplers are processes that sample from low energy states of problems objective function which is a mathematical expression of the energy of a system the sampler we've initialized returns a binary quadratic models value for every possible assignment of variable values this is a collection of binary valued variable that are variables that can be assigned to values like negative one and one with associated linear and quadratic biases a bqm sampler samples from low energy states in one of the default models defined by d-wave in the API and returns an iterable of samples in order of increasing energy this helps formulate optimization problems then we can use the wave networks library to produce a bqm for our graph and solve it on our select sampler we're not explicitly creating the bqm it's extracted by the ocean tool so given the problem graph it returns a solution to a bqm that it creates internally now to solve it on a quantum processor we can use ad wave sampler and a new addition the embedding composite this Maps unstructured problems to the graph structure of the selected sampler via a process called minor embedding our problem star graph must be mapped to the QP use numerically indexed qubits we'll see that it creates a new graph and solves it on the QP u we can know that this solution isn't unique in fact there are multiple valid solutions when we give our algorithm a much larger graph that consists of real-world data it will perform the same tasks and we can use the output as a guide as to where exactly we should place traffic monitoring equipment we now know the least amount of equipment we need to buy to monitor the entire network a lot to take in all at once I know but it's a very exciting field there are three things to remember from this video d waves leap is the first cloud based quantum application environment that gives developers real-time access to a live quantum computer quantum computing uses three key features from quantum mechanics to perform computations including superposition entanglement and tunneling and we can solve the minimum vertex problem for a graph much faster using a quantum machine than a classical one also coding challenge for the week create a simple application using leap that solves the problem I'll give a shout out next week to the top two entries and a special prize for number one I'm looking for great documentation and an interesting use case good luck wizards please subscribe for more programming videos and for now I've gotta stop interfering so thanks for watching

38 Comments

  1. Devon K said:

    0:06 you have the most adorable smile

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  2. Mauri Sombowadile said:

    Much of cryptography is broken. (Not the latest protocols, though, since they are designed to be still not polynomial-time even with quantum model of computation.)

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  3. OOster r said:

    Is it possible for a quantum computer to create a perfect mandelbrot zoom.

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  4. John Robson said:

    Where is the video with the code challenge answers?

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  5. Skeptoptimist said:

    Nice video, but overhyping DWave's quantum computer capabilities.

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  6. MindSpace Invader said:

    Don't get to happy about this thing. This was built to tunnel into different dimensions.

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  7. karl said:

    Bet it can't run Crysis on max settings.

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  8. teethsinthedark shadowsinnight said:

    I learned…..bro were you reading from a book. @ times I can hear you grasping for air. In all honesty I'm glad we evolving our machines for the greater good of mankind BUT when I hear about D wave I hear cern I hear QUATUM SUPER MACHINES more advanced than humans as you can see that where were headed. Then it's the speech cern Gave about using these quatum machines to open portal in another dimension. Now I know why we cannot find planes these days.

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  9. 2ΩIMFJ CD5 said:

    I believe quantum computing can be made into a great logistics system for future spacecraft.
    Who in this room believes we can navigate out of the Milky Way at light speed, then wants to try to predict the future? (Hypothetical of course. I don't expect miracles from a type "0" civilization.)
    I honestly believe that if mankind ever does get to type 1 or 2 without self destroying or a planetary catastrophe we may likely need a powerhouse navigation system. Something that doesn't rely on a signal because a signal won't keep up. Forget about Ground Control and all that. This is something that's going to have to be simulated with a group of cubesat satellite's at low speed in every direction to get a 360 degrees to map the program into this computer and then it's going to have to calculate where everything is on the way. Rodger?

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  10. Dylan Dylan said:

    0:26 Satanic pentagram symbol

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  11. Jason Carrasquillo said:

    01001100 01001101 01000001 01001111 Quantum "G"alaxy.

    * Sigh *

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  12. Sibby Eskie said:

    Good description of QC but pretty sure the jury is still out on whether D-Wave has a functioning quantum computer per se.

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  13. barış bilen said:

    how about pi number 😀

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  14. Avishek Mukherjee said:

    Wow!

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  15. Cheryl Anne said:

    Could this computing technology find a way to identify the sociopath gene that is obsessed with dominating everything to death and a way to disable that gene, rendering these monsters more docile?

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  16. Forever Evolving said:

    Have you guys watched the video that the guy who made the D-wave quantum computer gives a speech to his investors where he says they are literally pulling information from parelell universes? It's here on YouTube somewhere.

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  17. Lucky K. Antonopoulos said:

    Unfortunately the D-Wave isn't a real Quantum computer… it's a mimic :/

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  18. Mark S said:

    Google, Yahoo, Facebook, Apple, Alphabet, NASA and Darpa all have a D-Wave quantum computer. Does it work? Don't be silly.

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  19. AES said:

    can it run crysis @60fps?

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  20. Matthew Weems said:

    When you said binary computers would take millions of years in comparison to calculate a dataset that would take the Q computer a short period of time (presumably days or months), did you mean millions literally?!

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  21. N VDL said:

    With quantum experiments we can finally answer telepathic conspiracies.

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  22. Iustin Raznic said:

    Only available for Canada and US :((((

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  23. Vijay Kumar said:

    hmmm … Good technology, but it is restricted to US and UK …… so cant enroll to run the application

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  24. william polo valerio said:

    can use the demo to run as fast as gtx titan gpu?

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  25. Manoj Prajapati said:

    That means if in future AI enabled robot with quantum computing technology when asked
    is that a chair or stool?
    Robot: ChairStool 😂😂😂.
    is that micky or mouse?
    Robot: MickyMouse 😂.
    Does god exist?
    Robot: YesNo.

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  26. Manoj Prajapati said:

    Finally I can execute my O(N!) Algorithm in this quantum computing 😂 I hop it could gI've me solution in seconds

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  27. Jürgen Lochner said:

    Is the superposition state equal to a shaking in the time dimension? Meaning the particle in superposition travels back and forth in time and changing its state.

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  28. Francesco Rizzo said:

    hi Siraj, check Francesco Tacchino's paper (quantum perceptron)

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  29. Lucifer Pecado said:

    Loved your video,
    1. Learnt a little quantum mechanics
    2.SInce AI and computations are increasing tremendously and various different technologies are coming out everyday , so how do you plan it ?? Don't you think of wasting just a day to chill or play games or anything??How so determined ??

    And majorly how you understand everything???

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  30. Amit Ghosh said:

    U r awesome bro and my tech tonic 🙂

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  31. Fransisco Wijaya said:

    Prove it by decrypt SHA-256 encryption!

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  32. Deep Learning Partnership said:

    Cool.

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  33. inspectorcrud said:

    Isn't the d-wave a quantum annealing computer?

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  34. Ignace Saenen said:

    In normal physics, binary state probabilities are ALWAYS split as (100%-x) and x simultaneously, so the 60 / 40 split is the wrong example. The schizophrenic cat of Schrodinger drives the point home much more illusively. A cat is sitting in a box and, since you've never seen the cat, it might be alive or dead. In fact the cat is simultaneously alive AND dead to some unknown degree at the same time. Only when one opens the box will the superposition of states of the cat collapse to either one of the 2 outcomes. I'm a cat lover so I might nudge the box a little more to the left while doing so.. 😉

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  35. Don Allen III said:

    so exciting!

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  36. Martiddy - Sama said:

    0:20 wasn't IBM's quantum computer the first one to be connected to the cloud?

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  37. Pedro M. Peixoto R. said:

    To toxic. Quantum computer, is over 18 year of the Best of Internet, and Microsoft, things that we even imagine
    You don't , because you discover something, big. That have many years, used by big Companies.
    The algorithm 101. Have done a good, job. Alot of garbage, on Internet.
    Hope Quantum, and D-Wave.
    Have 18's rights of XXI

    To stop, with toxic minds.
    And start be Clean and Light

    Humanity, is full of pretenders, but made on existence only few Genius had made, the History.
    Today everyone wich to be famous, and they try to be smart. But, act stupid.

    Waiting for a quantum computer, on the Market.

    May 23, 2019
    Reply
  38. Simeon Trieu said:

    How does D-Wave Ocean compare with IBM Qiskit? Thanks, Siraj!

    May 23, 2019
    Reply

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