Public health informatics | Wikipedia audio article



public health informatics has been defined as the systematic application of information and computer science and technology to public health practice research and learning it is one of the sub domains of health informatics topic definition public health informatics is defined as the use of computers clinical guidelines communication and information systems which apply to vast majority of public health related professions such as nursing clinical hospital care public health and medical research topic United States in developed countries like the United States public health informatics is practiced by individuals in public health agencies at the federal and state levels and in the larger local health jurisdictions additionally research and training in public health informatics takes place at a variety of academic institutions at the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in US states like Atlanta Georgia the public health surveillance and informatics program office PHS IPO focuses on advancing the state of information science and applies digital information technologies to aid in the detection and management of diseases and syndromes in individuals and populations the bulk of the work of public health informatics in the United States as with Public Health generally takes place at the state and local level in the state departments of health in the county or parish departments of health at a State Health Department the activities may include collection and storage of vital statistics birth and death records collection of reports of communicable disease cases from doctors hospitals and laboratories used for infectious disease surveillance display of infectious disease statistics and trends collection of child immunization and lead screening information daily collection and analysis of emergency room data to detect early evidence of biological threats collection of hospital capacity information to allow for planning of responses in case of emergencies each of these activities presents its own information processing challenge topic collection of public health data todo describes CDC provided dose desktop-based systems like TI MSS TB STD M is sexually transmitted diseases epi info for epidemiology investigations and others since the beginning of the world wide web public health agencies with sufficient information technology resources have been transitioning to web-based collection of public health data and more recently to automated messaging of the same information in the years roughly 2000 to 2005 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention under its national electronic disease surveillance system nad SS built and provided free to States a comprehensive web and message based reporting system called the nad SS based system NBS due to the funding being limited and it not being wise to have fiefdom based systems only a few states and larger counties have built their own versions of electronic disease surveillance systems such as Pennsylvania's PA ne DSS these do not provide timely full intestate notification services causing an increase in disease rates versus the NE DSS federal product to promote interoperability the CDC has encouraged the adoption in public health data exchange of several standard vocabularies and messaging formats from the healthcare world the most prominent of these are the health level 7 hl7 standards for healthcare messaging the LOINC system for encoding laboratory tests and result information and the systematized nomenclature of medicine sno ma d vocabulary of healthcare concepts since about 2005 the CDC has promoted the idea of the public health information network to facilitate the transmission of data from various partners in the healthcare industry and elsewhere hospitals clinical and environmental laboratories doctors practices pharmacies to local health agencies than to state health agencies and then to the CDC at each stage the entity must be capable of receiving the data storing that aggregating it appropriately and transmitting it to the next level a typical example would be infectious disease data which hospitals labs and doctors are legally required to report to local health agencies local health agencies must report to their state Public Health Department in which the states must report in aggregate form to the CDC among other users the CDC publishes the morbidity and mortality weekly report MMWR based on these data acquired systematically from across the United States major issues in the collection of public health data are awareness of the need to report data lack of resources of either the reporter or collector lack of interoperability of data interchange formats which can be at the purely syntactic or at the semantic level variation in reporting requirements across the states territories and localities public health informatics can be thought or divided into three categories topic study models of different systems the first category is to discover and study models of complex systems such as disease transmission this can be done through different types of data collections such as hospital surveys or electronic survey submitted to the organization such as the CDC transmission rates or disease incidence rates surveillance can be obtained through government organizations such as the CDC or global organizations such as who not only disease transmission rates can be looked at public health informatics can also delve into people with without health insurance and the rates at which they go to the doctor before the advent of the internet public health data in the United States like other health care and business data were collected on paper forms in stored centrally at the relevant public health agency if the data were to be computerized they required a distinct data entry process was stored in the various file formats of the day and analyzed by mainframe computers using standard batch processing topic storage of public health data the second category is to find ways to improve the efficiency of different public health systems this is done through various collections methods storage of data and how the data is used to improve current health problems in order to keep everything standardized vocabulary and word usage needs to be consistent throughout all systems finding new ways to link together and share new data with current systems is important to keep everything up to date storage of public health data shares the same data management issues as other industries and like other industries the details of how these issues play out are affected by the nature of the data being managed due to the complexity and variability of public health data like healthcare data generally the issue of data modelling presents a particular challenge while a generation ago flat datasets for statistical analysis were the norm today's requirements of interoperability and integrated sets of data across the Public Health Enterprise require more sophistication the relational database is increasingly the norm in public health informatics designers and implementers of the many sets of data required for various public health purposes must find a workable balance between very complex and abstract data models such as hl7 z– reference information model rim or CDC's Public Health logical data model and simplistic ad hoc models that untrain public health practitioners come up with and feel capable of working with due to the variability of the incoming data to public health jurisdictions data quality assurance is also a major issue topic analysis of public health data finally the last category can be thought as maintaining and enriching current systems and models to adapt to overflow of data and storing sorting of this new data this can be as simple as connecting directly to an electronic data collection source such as health records from the hospital or can go public information CDC about disease rates transmission finding new algorithms that will sort through large quantities of data quickly and effectively is necessary as well the need to extract usable public health information from the massive data available requires the public health informaticists to become familiar with a range of analysis tools ranging from business intelligence tools to produce routine or ad-hoc reports to sophisticated statistical analysis tools such as – and pspp SPSS – geographical information systems GIS to expose the geographical dimension of Public Health trends such analyses usually require methods that appropriately secure the privacy of the health data one approach is to separate the individually identifiable variables of the data from the rest topic applications in health surveillance and epidemiology there are a few organizations out there that provide useful information for those professionals that want to be more involved in public health informatics such as the American Medical Informatics Association am ia am ia is for professions that are involved in healthcare informatics research biomedical research including physicians scientists researchers and students the main goals of amia are to move from bench to bedside help improve the impact of health innovations and advance the public health informatics field they hold annual conferences online classes and webinars which are free to their members there is also a Career Center specific for the biomedical and health informatics community many jobs or fellowships in public health informatics are offered the CDC Center for Disease Control has various fellowship programs while multiple colleges companies offer degree programs or training in this field for more information on these topics follow the links below HTTP colon slash slash w WJ h SP h edu slash dept slash health dash policy – and – management slash certificate / public – Health – informatics slash what – is – Health – informatics HTML HTTP colon slash slash web archive.org slash web slash 201 five oh four oh six zero three three seven four three slash HTTP colon slash slash wwf/e org slash we do Safire healthcare or situational awareness and preparedness for public health incidences and reasoning engines is a semantics based health information system capable of tracking and evaluating situations and occurrences that may affect public health topic social media analytics since the late 2000s data from social media websites such as Twitter and Facebook as well as search engines such as Google and Bing have been used extensively in detecting trends in public health

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