Nano Technology



this is a man-made motor a motor so small that more than 6,000 of them would fit on the head of a pin welcome to the world of the nanometer a unit of measure that is one billionth of a meter a nanometer is pretty small one of the best analogies that I like to use is to compare with the human hair if you take a hair off of the top of your head you can see that it's very thin and now if you take something that's a hundred thousand times thinner than that that's a nanometer the ability to observe and construct things this small is at the heart of nanotechnology and what scientists have discovered is that at the nanometer scale everyday materials start to act in unimaginable ways for Geoffrey Grossman a UC Berkeley nano scientists working with the National Science Foundation that's exactly the draw the behavior of nanomaterials changes or can change when the size become so small when compared with a larger amount of that same material when you have things that sort of start changing the way they behave and now you have the ability to control that it sort of opens up an entirely new phase space of material suddenly it's like the periodic table projects out into a new dimension it's not just that we have the list of elements it's what we can change their sizes and each size is a little bit different than every other when it's very very small the fact that you can customize nanomaterials unique behaviors has already turned Nano into the buzzword of the decade some researchers predict nanotechnology could lead to faster computer chips tiny medical devices that repair clogged arteries and new filters to clean water pollution as novel as nanomaterial seem humans have actually used them for hundreds of years for centuries the colors in stained glass windows for example have been the result of a controlled heating and cooling process that adjusts the size of tiny crystals in the glass that's medieval nanotechnology what's different now is that we have the ability to look on the nanoscale and see what's happening that gives us an ability to design materials rather than to just find them by a kind of accidental process but understanding and controlling how nanomaterials act can be tricky every time you trap the material in to say you go from a crystal that's a hundred atoms across 250 225 each time you do that almost all the properties of the material really changed so these changes are very radical and quite dramatic if you take a piece of a material say silicon and you look at that material it looks kind of dark charcoal so it's not that interesting to look at but now if you take out your little nano ice-cream scooper and you scoop out a nano sized chunk of that material and you look at that all of a sudden it glows blue and if you take a slightly bigger ice-cream scooper out it glows red and so now you have a material that completely changes the way it looks the color that it is just by changing its size so the question is why do nanomaterials behave so strangely in the case of the nano ice cream scoop the behavioural change happens when you start to make a material so tiny that its electrons are squeezed into a space smaller than they prefer it's called quantum confinement the smaller you make the crystal the higher the energy of the electron will be it's kinetic energy is increased and that can be thought of as making its wavelength a bit shorter and forcing it into a box where it kind of zips around more quickly another factor that shapes nano scale behaviors is the relationship between volume and surface area things this small have much more outside than they have inside the surface area of the material starts to skyrocket compared to its volume and in fact when you get down this small most of the material could be just surface and very little of it is actually volume and the reason why that's interesting is that the more surface you have the more reactions you can carry out on that surface so you can do things like filtering much more efficiently so you could filter water more effectively with more surface area our ability to observe and change things at the nano scale has led to a host of new materials applications and has even made it possible for scientists to begin building working nano mechanical machines like this motor but in the world of nano machines nature is still king some of the most fascinating things that we see on the nano scale are the machines that nature builds on the nano scale nature makes rotors and motors and things that operate on this length scale of a few nanometers by making protein assemblies and that have these interesting mechanical nano mechanical properties if you look at the flagellum of a bacterium it's a little nano scale motor and it has bushings and all kinds of different pieces inside there that is built very differently than the way we make ours and they have some other tricks for trying to decipher a levy Sato's and his colleagues are eager to understand and apply some of these new ideas to the real world among their goals finding new forms of clean energy every minute enough of the sun's light reaches the earth to meet the world's energy demand for an entire year this seems like a good place to start photosynthesis and photovoltaics is surely the one where we have the most interesting conversation that goes on between how nature achieves this and how might we do it in the future if we're to get our energy from the Sun we need to copy some of the lessons of nature but we also need to find some of our own little tricks that we could apply coming up with some tricks of their own that's exactly what researchers are doing at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories molecular foundry located in the Berkeley Hills the facility is one of the world's premier nanoscience research centres comprising six floors the foundry is a buzzing hive of activity where the newest nanomaterials move from theory into the lab we're working on developing plastic solar cells so trying to harvest light for energy using Palmer's more like nylon traditional solar cells using crystalline silicon as the light absorbing material are less than ideal silicon is heavy expensive and fragile in this lab researchers are trying to replace silicon with polymers complex usually man-made molecules here graduate student David Cadillac builds tiny polymer based solar cells and tests the results we're focusing in a solar cell on the active layer of the part that does the light absorbing and the conduction of the electrons to the electrodes we can design these conjugated polymers that are conducting in any number of ways we can add on certain side chains to them that make them more soluble that make them better conductors that change the energy levels and the bandgaps of these polymers we start with a glass substrate with a transparent electrode which is normally indium tin oxide we spin a polymer solution down on top of this which the solvent evaporates really quickly and we're left with a approximately 100 nanometers of polymer which is our active layer then we take it evaporate on a top contact electrode and test it in a solar simulator if 8 aluminum electrodes that gives us eight solar cells per substrate and so now we can use this to test and see what kind of efficiencies we've gained we have the ability to control individual molecules in the polymerization steps and we're just on the very cutting edge of this it's only been around for for so few years that we don't know where this is going to go but it only looks on but along with its promise of a bright new future nanoscience brings with it a share of risks and fears in December 2006 the City of Berkeley amended its hazardous materials law to include nanoparticles making it the only local government in America to regulate nanotechnology we know that nanoscale materials can enter inside cells and we know that that could have consequences for health and so it's incumbent it's really required that we do research to understand what is the nature of the interaction between new engineered artificial nanoscale materials and living systems not just cells but whole living beings I think when you understand what kind of impact nanotechnology could have on some of the global problems such as global warming disease clean water and so forth I think that inaction is is actually the unethical standpoint I think stasis is unethical in this in this case these advances that were describing today are really key to achieving health and to achieving sustainable energy technology the big issues of our day in many ways and so I think every member of the public has an obligation to try to learn a little bit about these things so that they can participate in that debate in a meaningful way

22 Comments

  1. THE JORDE said:

    Nanomachines son, they harden in response to physical trauma

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  2. Tarcisio Mello De Paula said:

    Au C60

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  3. random269 said:

    Hate the music.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  4. Wajid Sohail said:

    old guy speaks like Bruce banner.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  5. التابعي اللول said:

    وعلم الانسان ما لم يعلم. سبحان الله

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  6. whatsamatayu said:

    And it explains how Homeopathy works! See the research by Dr. Iris Bell et al.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  7. Martijn De Gussem said:

    something about it being dangerous i gues … it's 2 months ago man i don't remember
    srry 😉

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  8. frankos rooni said:

    The best of the US –good stuff

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  9. Patrick Howard said:

    I love nanotechnology, everything is getting smaller, faster, better. I can't wait until CPU processing gets extremely small so that wearable devices will start being possible.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  10. Mootle1000 said:

    Is the technology suitable for industrial high strength cable or CBR Filtration?

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  11. Martijn De Gussem said:

    yes like every technological marvel it can 🙁 it's the price we pay i guess

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  12. libertarianjury said:

    The general public is purely evil (on the balance, which rules elections) when it comes to political involvement. This is because they partly recognize that the promises of politicians are all based on the premise of coercion, and hence, any "good" political promise is financed with evil. Thus, the things that get financed with this coercion (taxation) are the "most important" things. Precisely the things people are already prioritizing and already doing as efficiently as possible, voluntarily.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  13. Awsom38 said:

    Material Science does already create wonders :
    You can read "Hacking Matter" by Will McCarthy.
    You'll be AMAZED !

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  14. Hemmersfield1 said:

    buzz kill

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  15. John Rikard Mandelid said:

    but why should we ?

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  16. THUNDERBOLT said:

    oh yeah thanks 😀 had so many options to choose from phyched sycked and cycked,yay learned something new

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  17. ODSTRubicon said:

    We have found so many spectacular things on the quantum/ nano scale every boundary, system, universal law is desired down at the bank scale. Nanoscience could possibly make us masters of co-creation we will be limitoess one day

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  18. Rivoltella said:

    psyched

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  19. THUNDERBOLT said:

    5:40 getting all cycked XD

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  20. xithosity said:

    Interesting but very problematic as the power hungry world gov's and military's will weaponize it. Anyways God bless, Jesus saves!

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  21. h7opolo said:

    Metallic nano-particles can be guided via magnetic fields. Research has shown that nano-particles, emitted from diesel exhaust, have an affinity to, once inhaled by humans, lodge themselves deep in brain and lung tissue. Once there, it is my speculation that, in conjunction with HAARP, there could be some remote behavior control involved.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  22. trabuco9 said:

    Any science can

    June 30, 2019
    Reply

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *