MECHATRONICS – Mechanical Engineering UPSC Engineering Services 2017 (Revised Pattern)



hi my dear student children welcome to the awareness session on the subject mechatronics newly added in the UPSC engineering services 2017 for mechanical engineering I invite our professor Satish Kumar to give your presentation on this particular topic mechatronics hi students myself am Satish Kumar faculty of instrumentation from ASIC army Here I am able to discuss about mechatronics subject which was included in is 2017 for mechanical engineering people these are first time that subject has included in the syllabus of AI years just to give an awareness of electronics fundamentals to the mechanical engineering people so coming to the syllabus if you see the syllabus the mechatronics contains the combination of some basic sensors and actuators and their interfacing to digital devices like micro processors microcontrollers and programmable logical controllers so if you see the syllabus the topic wise I am just reading the syllabus microprocessors and microcontrollers and their architecture programming and interfacing to Ivo and computers the disabled MPM support next coming programmable logical controller in short it is called as PLC's next sensors and actuators and some sample of sensors he has given one is fees Electric accelerometer and hoar effect sensor optical encoder and finally resolver in depth Essene pneumatic and hydraulic actuators and stepper motor that means in overview in trans uses in electrical and communication part of IES the subject was called as sensors and transducers but here in Macau mechatronics subject they have given sensors and their interfacing to some digital device what is the essence of the subject mechatronics and why they have included for mechanical engineering people the reason is today the machines are compulsory has to be interfaced to the computers so the students of mechanical should have some basic understanding of interfacing and late mission or a CNC machine or a mechanical device to a electronic component so they should have an awareness of these basics of electronics and controllers also so the field of mechatronics is a combination of mechanical engineering and also some advanced in software's like CAD design and electronic concepts and some digital systems like microprocessor and microcontrollers today this subject is having vast applications in the field of automation aerospace medical defence and consumer products and finally manufacturing so let us see the overview of each and every topic fluid as introduction the subject of mechatronics is a combination of mechanical and electronics as a technology advance is happening the subfields of engineering are added together and the student should have an awareness of that subject so this subject includes mechanical concepts of control and instrumentation and computer engineering this a first time a mechanical student is getting a computer-based questions in the field of mechanics so this is a completely new for a mechanical engineering microprocessor microcontrollers may be in your academics you may not have an awareness of the subject but these subjects are very familiar to electronics background people so in is as he has mentioned the names of micro process microcontrollers so just the basics of microprocessor architecture of microprocessor by taking one sample of one standard microprocessor like a zero eight six one one standard microcontroller eight zero five one will take that architecture and will study step by step what is a microprocessor today everybody has aware of what is the technology of mobile is following so the root of all these mobile technologies first the processor micro process simply a CPU on a single chip but without memory whereas microcontroller a cpu with a memory also on it so comparatively microprocessor microcontroller is somewhat advanced so by generating a mechanical signal the mechanical signal can be converted electrical electrical to digital and the digital signal should be given to the processor technology in our syllabus we are going to discuss about architecture programming and I who may be programming may be first time for the mechanical engineering students why because they may be familiar with mathematical calculation of mechanics and controls but here first time they are going to get an introduction of assembly language programming how to write a program just like in their academics they have studied C language here they are going to study with assembly language programming related to processor so if you see how to interface devices as the mechanical engineering people are having many sensors and many actuators we have to connect those devices to a digital system so this is the way the system contains a CPU and a memory and the external environment input/output and how they are interfaced to the memory and how the buses are interlinked so that is given here so we are going to take an architectural overview of processor to the external world that external world involves your mechanical sensors and this is the advanced topic just he has given in one phrase in the syllabus as PLC program logic controller but it is a very important course nowadays for the electrical and mechanical engineers those who are entering into the industries why because we have to program on the computer to control the entire industry so this is one of the PLC's available in the market if you see closely that contains some input module and output model and in the center there is a processor so the mechanical engineer has to connect his particular sensor to this device and by the computer he has to write a program and the program has to be downloaded into this PLC and finally has to see the output so this is for the first so what we are going to discuss is the architecture of the PLC or the block diagram of the PLC if you see the PLC block diagram it contains interface input and output and the center part is a processor so in short the input and output are the mechanical and the center part is electronics it is a combination of mechanical and electronics so in IAS level what you is going to ask is just the basic architecture of the PLC why because field is a complete certified subject it is a certification course available in the market here in our teaching in our classrooms we are going to see Q the basic architecture and its programming concepts see this is the hardware of a PLC system if you see the hardware of a PLC system at the center there is a PLC blocks and the left aside there is a switch at the right extreme there is a light so the switch can be called as a mechanical sensor the light can be called as a optical actuator and the center part is a controller so we are linking the mechanics to the electronics the student should have an awareness of different mechanical input devices different mechanical output actuators and they should have evidence of center part that is plc part now this is very familiar for the mechanical what is sensor and what is actuated but here in the syllabus these main intention is the sensor and actuator related to electronic side so the sensor should generate a electrical output basically sensor means a device which senses the change but as we are leaving in the digital and electronic world we want the output of the sensor as electrical so a device which converts a non electrical parameter into electrical in electrical it is called as transducer but in mechanical it is called as a sensor the reverse operation of this that means sensor converts non electrical delict Racal the reverse that means electrical to non electrical that is done by the actuator so some time sensor is called as a transducer sometimes actuator is called as a reverse transducer so in the syllabus he has given types of sensors so before that where is the sensors and actuators are essential used by this block diagram can understand this is a block diagram of a physical system which is followed in the industry in the industry we are taking one non electrical parameter see that bubble type of image there is environmental parameters those internal parameters are nothing but your mechanical parameters the parameters can be as pressure signal a flow signal a noise signal or a temperature signal or a force signal a speed signal acceleration signal so the physical atmosphere from that we have to take input that is done by sensor so the sensor will convert the physical quantity into a electrical quantity while I am talking electrical why because we are interested in electronic output electrical load that is what is mechatronics so the electrical output is going to a intermediate stage where we are going to add some correction factor and finally that is given to a controller there the controller many controllers are there in the market in other syllabus it is mentioned micro processors micro controllers and PLC so we are going to discuss how a microprocessor is going to control similarly how a micro control is going to control similarly advanced to PLC system is going to control so the observer is going to see finally the quantity miserable sometimes this communication can be avoided communication and sometimes it can be wireless communication also woried communication means the sensor is in contact with the physical process and the user has to get a wired connection Wireless means without why does observe we can see over a distance of hundred meters a thousand meters also we have a list of sensors if you see in the syllabus he has very clearly mentioned some examples for the sensors the first sensor has mentioned the syllabus ease the fees Oh electric axial Romita if you see the image the chief image is very clear over there it is going to convert a mechanical vibration signal into indicator so the vibrations is mechanical that is converted to electrical voltage the voltage is over a display so mechanics a mechanical sensor and also a electrical display so what is an axial row meter simply it is a vibration sensor in your mechanical engineering in your mechanical you may have studied how to convert a vibration signal to displacement but here we are interested in not a mechanical output we are interested in electrical output how that mechanical vibration can be converted to electrical that we are going to discuss in mechatronics subject the other sensors he has given the syllabus Hall sensors and optical encoders this hall sensor is a sensor for magnetic field so whenever what is Hall sensor if you see this image it is very clear whenever a conductor a electrical conductor is kept in a 90 degrees magnetic field if you observe that image internal charge carriers are going to experience a force so at the left and right we are going to get some charge that means if a magnetic field is present we are going to get electrical output a Hall sensor is a sensor for magnetic field next coming to the optical encoder first time you have include optical concepts also why optical concepts have included as the latest engineering services trend is dependent on solar right now the power of the solar is running so students should have awareness of how to convert solar energy and what are the concepts related to optics there are different sensors he has given optical encoder so this optical encoder is generally used to point out the angular position of a rotating shot in your mechanical engineering you are very familiar about the position of a shaft as a shaft is rotating now the position of the shaft can be find out by using the optical encoder the last actuators as I told sensor part is converting non to electrical dialectical actuator party is converting electrical input to mechanical output so there are different actuators if you see the control signal finally there is a energy conversion and output in the syllabus there are different actuators but in the syllabus he has given three actuators mainly one is hydraulic actuator other one is pneumatic actuator and the next one is electric actuator in the hydraulic actuator I think mechanical people are very familiar with the subject of hydraulics and pneumatics you have studied FM fluid mechanics in the hydraulics we are going to use fluid properties whereas in the pneumatic we are using a gas properties a liquid properties in the hydraulic and a gas property singer pneumatic by using these fluids liquids and gases finally we are going to control a movement that is done with hydraulic and pneumatic actuator coming to electrical these are first term that mechanical student is getting electrical actuator what is electric actuator it is going to convert electric energy into mechanical energy so we are going to give a mechanical output by giving a electrical input it is nowadays comparatively hydraulics and pneumatics electric actuators are famous why because hydraulics and pneumatics they're having the component as fluid fluid is having a frictional effect cleanliness but here in the electric it does not involve a oil frictionless electrical signal so easily we can control under the electrical actuator a stepper motor is given in the syllabus so student is to get an awareness of what is stepper motor you may have studied normal motors but here we are going to study stepper motor what is the promoter it converts electric pulses into discrete mechanical moments that means the mechanical movement is going to be discrete on and off type a digital type overview of the syllabus what is overview of the syllabus what is a basic plan of the designer for the IES he has given the basic sensors under the sensor she has given some examples even the examples are being given only fees on Hall and optical he is given but we have to go through other sensors also forces and saws flow sensors that is not mention the syllabus but to we'll have awareness anyway in the fluid mechanics you may have studied flow sensors and also actuators actuators elliptic actuators is completely new under the electrical activity has given stepper motor and next coming to microprocessor microcontrollers how the sensor have to be interfaced to the microprocessor a microcontroller and a PLC basically the block diagram and interface if you see the model questions in is the expected questions if you see this Effie's or electric sensor has a sensitivity of 2 point 5 millivolts per Newton what is sensitivity that student should have evidence of that first then if a static force of 5 Newtons applied then the output is – generally we know sensitivity means a change in output to change in input so as the units if you observe the units of the question these electrical sensor units if you observe it is given 2 point 5 millivolts per Newton that means per 1 Newton force applied newton is a unit of force 1 Newton force if you apply it you are going to get 2 point 5 millivolts so the input is a mechanical force output is electrical signal that is a basic thing of a sensor but what he asked if a static force of 5 Newtons so very simple student will get an idea for 1 Newton 2 point 5 millivolts now so for 5 Newton's how much I am going to get 12 point 5 millivolts so student will think that but you should have awareness of working principle of fees Oh electric the working principle of fees electric ease phase electric sensor will work only for dynamic inputs not for the static inputs as in the question a static is mentioned so the answer is the response is zero so the correct answer is last option that is zero millivolts next that means the student will get an idea not only a mathematical concept but also you should have some internal working procedure of fees electricity what is static input what is dynamic input which a sensor will work for static only which sensor will work for dynamic only and what are the static signals what are the dynamic signals the student should have a knowledge of this next list of sensors these are very famous and very frequently ask a question not only in a IES but also in gate exam and non gate exams master following he will give a list of sensors and at the right side he will give the parameter that sensor can measure if you observe cantilever beam hall sensor fees electric sensor venturi meter right sir he has given the parameters as mechanical engineer very familiar venturimeter is a sensor for flow but the above cantilever beam is also cantilever beam I think you're aware of mechanical force so they can sense the force and they can convert into displacement these two are advanced B and C Hall sensor and fees electric Harleys just not as explained magnetic field phaser has explained acceleration that means as a combination not only mechanical a and D are pure mechanical shouldn't we'll have an awareness B and C or electronics so he will combine the concept of mechanical and electronics so the correct option I think cantilever beam goes to 4a for for Hall sensors will go for magnetic field phaser will go for acceleration the correct translation option a okay so coming to true and false in IES we have a session and reasoning questions true and false questions so students we have evanesce which are the following statement is true fees electric crystal can be used for measurement of static pressure also in that two sensors have lot of frictional effect than mechanical sensors resolver sensors can be used measuring angular position or angular displacement mechanical sensors have infinite lifetime so students should analyze each and every statement first thing if you compare option to an option for sorry statement to do and statement for statement for mechanical sensors have infinite life then no they have some lot of rate there will work according to the concepts of friction so their life time is very very less second inductive sensors have lot of frictional effect than mechanical sensors so almost two and four are closed mechanical sensors having frictional effect we have to apply mass you have to apply force to move it but whereas in debt two sensors are working on the concept of electron electron friction electron mass is less than the mechanical mass that's the point you would understand the mass of emission and the mass of electron if you compare the friction effect is very very less in electrical sensors so – is also wrong in bed – sensor have less frictional effect and mechanical sensor have less infinite less lifetime and as I told freeze elliptic crystal can be used for measurement of static no it can be used only for vibration dynamic so options definitely only third statement as I told optical encoders and resolvers these two are used for determining the position position of a shaft moving shaft so answer is option C so these are the modern object equations in the model object equations working principle of a sensor true and false related to sensors and different sensors and different parameters match the following coming to the conventional as you are aware there is a good weight age for the convention also in paper – what is the conventional at the first time I am giving a model question on the conventional first that mu topic that mechanical should may be mechanical should say how hard microprocessors microcontrollers also sometimes but PLC they are not heard up to know okay this PLC is a one complete subject for instrumentation people so on these how to program appeals what is a programming language that used for the PLC on that a question may be asked so if you see draw a rll what is our ll relay ladder logic for PLC if a switch is closed to turn on a pilot light for one time what does it mean first the programming language name is RL this is a RL relay ladder logic so the PLC is a controller the controller is going to control some external environment to control that the user has to write a program but remember the program is not text it is not like a C language it is not like a microprocessor language it is a ladder language ladder means just like in our normal conventional ladder how the rungs will be there here on the Rings so what is the statement here if you see this input blue a normally open content and the output a coil so there is a symbol of input and there is a Belov output so when this is closed the output is going to be on that means if I switch this symbolizes a switch and the braces open braces that symbolizes a coil so that means what is PLC what are the components of the PLC what are the programming concepts of the PLC the student should have awareness so here in our classroom teachings we are going to give step-by-step approach of what is the input and output and what are the programming concepts so even though the subject is new for the mechanical engineer people and the concepts of electronics are completely new for them don't worry in our Academy we are there to guide you to give the complete concept and not only technical ways but also examination point of view we are going to give in a step-by-step approach ok hi students I hope you might have got some idea about the subject mechatronics thanks for watching and if you liked it please recommend this to the friends whom you love to winberries join ace

5 Comments

  1. _viwin_ _ said:

    Bro after 12th we can directly study mechatronic engineering

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  2. Bupesh Veeraiah said:

    Sir I'm a mechatronics engineering student how can I prepare for IES and GATE…

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  3. Yogshri Chaudhari said:

    Sir…in mechatronics mechanical is 70%& electronic is an 30% , electronic part is hard or not …

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  4. काजल यादव said:

    Nice

    May 22, 2019
    Reply
  5. Saurabh Kumar said:

    This teacher is excellent to teach this topic

    May 22, 2019
    Reply

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