Introduction to Science and Technology of GPS

GPS stands for Global Positioning System
GPS is a satellite navigation system used to determine the ground position of an
object. GPS technology was first used by The United States Military in the 1960s and expanded into civilian used over the next few decades. Today GPS receivers are included in many commercial products such as automobiles,
smartphones, exercise watches and GIS devices. The GPS system includes 24 satellites deployed in the space about 12,000 miles above the Earth’s surface.
They orbit the Earth once every 12 hours at an extremely fast pace of roughly 7,000
miles per hour The satellites are evenly spread out so
that the four satellites are accessible via direct line of sight from anywhere
on the globe. Developed by the European Union in 2011, Galileo
currently operates 14 satellites and is intended to provide a more accurate
positioning service at higher latitudes than other GNSS systems. GALILEO is
expected to compete with the global reach of GPS by 2020 with the use of 24
satellites in six orbital planes. The fully deployed GALILEO system will
consist of 24 operational satellites plus six in-orbit spares positioned in three
circular Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) planes at 23,222 kilometers above the Earth, at an inclination of orbital planes of
56 degrees to the equator. GLONASS was developed by the Soviet Union as an
experimental military communications system during the 1970s. When the Cold
War ended, the Soviet Union recognized that GLONASS had commercial
applications also. The first GLONASS satellite was launched in 1982 and
the system was declared fully operational in 1993. After a period, where GLONASS
performance declined, Russia committed to bringing the system up to the required
minimum of 18 active satellites. Currently, GLONASS has a full deployment
of 24 satellites in the constellation Since 2000, China’s BeiDou navigation satellite system has been on the rise to potentially overtake GPS in commercial global usage Currently in its third
generation, it claims to reach a millimeter level accuracy that
outperforms other systems. However, with only 22 operational satellites, BeiDou
is at a slight disadvantage in terms of accuracy when compared to GPS and
GLONASS. They are expecting more satellites and increased accuracy by
2020. The placement of all the satellites of different navigation systems is shown
in this picture. You can see the combined constellation of GPS, Galileo, and GLONASS. That was all from our side. Thank You and
have a wonderful day 🙂


  1. Alan Walker said:

    Hahahahah teri Total Zindagi pe Lanat ✋✋✋

    January 14, 2020
  2. moez omer said:


    January 14, 2020

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