Innovators: The future of Quantum Computing



quantum computing used to sound like science fiction but increasingly it's starting to become reality we're here at the headquarters of Intel labs I find out more about how the company is making these chips possible if you imagine a coin like this it's it's heads or its tails it's one or the other so it represents one state or another now imagine if I had a coin that was spinning and see if I can do this and I ask you is it heads or is it tails now you know it's heads but but while it was spinning but while it was spinning you don't know it's neither or it's both and so that's the power of quantum computing unlike a classical computer which processes binary code that translates to on and off states Watson Computing's qubit functions in a world of probability now imagine if I had two spinning coins and I said how many states are there this exponential growth in probability leads to mind boggling processing power if I had 50 cubits or 50 spinning coins I could represent more States than there are available in any supercomputer on earth if I had 300 of these spinning coins or three hundred qubits and they were all coupled I could represent more States than there are atoms in the galaxy qubits are very fragile and in reality you're going to have to use more of them than you expect it in order to get a usable system it's probably going to take millions of qubits to get the job done researchers can manage only tens of qubits right now even so quantum computers require chip sizes and system sizes well beyond what we're used to seeing we've taken a qubit a qubit chip this is for our superconducting qubit platform and we put it on a package what you see here is a package that's been optimized for low temperature strength optimized for very good RF or radio performance actually microwave performance we've also optimized it for basically signal integrity and so these represent gold RF connectors think coax connectors that are particularly well suited for low noise we operate these systems at very cold temperatures we have these refrigerators called dilution refrigerators they're about the size of a 55-gallon drum and they can get down to a fraction of a degree above absolute zero and in fact we would say that they're 250 times colder than deep space we think about the first Cray supercomputers in the mid 70s these were very large probably as large as you know 1/2 this room and these are the most powerful computers on earth at the time and no one would have thought that close to 40 years later we would have miniaturized these and and moored into our back pockets so probably what I'll do is I'll leave that miniaturization for the next generation but right now I actually don't think it's a problem to have a large system if that system is I'll say the world's most powerful computer I think people would will not mind the space if it's reasonable if that's the case go doing quantum chips at volume is another problem to solve Intel though is uniquely capable of tackling that issue head-on and the company thinks traditional silicon is the path forward a silicon spin qubit looks a lot like a transistor like the transistor you'd find in our latest technology knows but we operate it with only one electron okay and so we have single electron transistors we put the whole thing in the fridge in a magnetic field and we can actually monitor the state of that single transistor it's either spin up or spin down that represents the two states of the of the qubit we're using similar equipment so this is running in the same fab that's that's doing the the cutting-edge chips our design rules are a little bit different we're tailoring them to specific structures but largely the materials are the same I think roughly fifty thousand cubits on this wafer they're not coupled together so we can't use them together but you see the power of using Intel's advanced process lines to make qubits if we can get this technology working we're gonna be making chips that are exactly the same from wafer to wafer and we're going to have lots and lots of qubit arrays on any given wafer the tech isn't ready yet and it may take years but Intel thinks it's experience is a definite advantage we are betting that Intel's expertise with the Intel Architecture that sort of expertise at the person level that we can bring those people to quantum and make headway if the company can crack it we'll be one step closer to seeing quantum chips outside of research labs and into the computers you might actually use just be patient it may take a decade or three

3 Comments

  1. aboctok said:

    0:45 "It's neither, or it's both. Err, so that's the power of quantum computing." Yeah, thanks for the fudge; it's delicious.

    June 29, 2019
    Reply
  2. ayyappa swami said:

    Quantum computers came because of the development in Quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics founder was Niels Bohr. Niels Bohr got inspiration to create Quantum mechanics is from Cubic art. The art movement of jean metzinger is called cubism. Jean Metzinger new concept of Cubism in art came from his new way of thinking. Because in early 1900 photographs and cameras are came into existence. So painters need a new kind of art to survive. So, what we understand now is, the need of our existence lead us to create new kind of things, now like Quantum Computers.

    June 29, 2019
    Reply
  3. Paul said:

    This is not real quantum computing. We are not that advanced yet. Until we can see quantum with our own eyes in our 3D world in all it's glory then we will start computing it but until then companies will throw the word quantum around not realizing that it isn't true quantum.

    June 29, 2019
    Reply

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