How Scientists Are Making ‘Sonic’ Black Holes in a Lab


Hawking radiation, which is particles predicted
by Stephen Hawking that are emitted by black holes, are at the center of a huge debate
among physicists. Unfortunately, we’ve only recently been
able to take a black hole’s picture, let alone study the quantum particles it might
be giving off. So for clues on how real black holes behave,
scientists are creating stand-ins in a lab and taking their temperature. What could be analogous to a black hole, you
ask? Well, black holes curve space-time so much
that the fastest thing in the universe, light, cannot escape. Once it crosses what’s known as the event
horizon, it can’t come back. So instead of making something light can’t
escape, what if we made a medium another wave cannot escape? Like, sound. A fluid moving at supersonic speeds could
do just that. Amazingly in 1981, it was shown that the exact
same equations that describe event horizons can also be used to describe sonic horizons
in a system like that. The math even predicted vibrations called
phonons, which can act as the sonic equivalent of Hawking radiation under the right circumstances. In empty space, virtual particles are popping into existence all the time, and when they meet,
they immediately annihilate each other again. When these virtual particles form straddling
the cusp of an event horizon, however, one of them gets sucked into the black hole, while
the other escapes. In the same way, quantum units of sound called
phonons can arise in fluids. In normal circumstances, these tiny vibrations
will meet and cancel each other out, but if one phonon forms where the fluid is moving
slower than the speed of sound and it’s opposite forms where the fluid is supersonic,
they should be separated and made permanent. It took until 2009 for scientists to actually
make one of these sonic black holes. They supercooled rubidium atoms until they
formed a Bose-Einstein condensate and got them flowing. By zapping the moving fluid partway along
its path with a laser, that section of fluid was accelerated to supersonic speeds, creating
a sonic event horizon. Sure enough, the scientists observed entangled
phonons that were consistent with sonic Hawking radiation. Since that experiment scientists have got
even more crafty with their black hole analogs, creating multiple sonic horizons that would
bounce phonons back and forth, amplifying them and making them easier to detect. And in 2019, they finally measured the temperature
of the phonons, which could prove Hawking right on a controversial prediction about
his radiation. You heard me, the quantum sounds also gave
off a bit of heat, about 0.35 billionths of a kelvin. Hawking predicted his radiation would also
have a temperature, but those predictions are a huge sticking point for quantum mechanics. If Hawking radiation is thermal, it would
be a random spread of energies. That would mean it carries no information
about what it once was before falling into the black hole. But quantum mechanics treats information as
indestructible, and says that the past state of the universe can always be determined if
you rewind from the present. Either Hawking is wrong or we need to rethink
quantum mechanics. Unfortunately for quantum mechanics, the fact
that these phonons have a temperature consistent with Hawking’s calculations points to Hawking
being right. That is of course assuming that a sonic black
hole is a perfect stand in for a black hole, and even the researchers behind this experiment
admit it may very well not be. Until we can take the temperature of a real
black hole or come up with a theory of quantum gravity that combines gravity with quantum
mechanics, Stephen Hawking’s prediction will remain unresolved. Thanks for watching be sure to subscribe to
learn all the weird ways we’re trying to untangle the mysteries of black holes, like
how they might be like fuzz balls. Pun absolutely intended. Maren spins a yarn in this video here. The disagreement between Hawking’s predictions
and quantum mechanics’ rules about information is known as the information paradox. That’s all for me, see you next time on
Seeker!

100 Comments

  1. lex Tr3 said:

    so much bullshit.. unsuscribed

    July 10, 2019
    Reply
  2. Luuk Verheij said:

    Nice shirt

    July 10, 2019
    Reply
  3. SaveTheHumanz said:

    Might need to rethink quantum mechanics or rethink heat

    July 10, 2019
    Reply
  4. sirati97 said:

    No wrong that's not how hawking radiation works, stop using that wrong popscience explaination

    July 10, 2019
    Reply
  5. SolarEXtract said:

    Gotta go fast!

    July 10, 2019
    Reply
  6. anas .Z said:

    First mistake radiations are not particles.

    July 10, 2019
    Reply
  7. anas .Z said:

    The picture of Black hoes are beautiful.

    July 10, 2019
    Reply
  8. Bo Rlup said:

    This is actually not how particle creation/annihilation works. Everywhere is the same explanation, so we can't really blame Seeker. PBS Space Time has a good video on this topic, as on many others. Otherwise genuinely interesting topic of this video!

    July 10, 2019
    Reply
  9. Mrfantastic XX said:

    Gunna start reading Stephen Hawkins book. Life's biggest questions I think.

    July 10, 2019
    Reply
  10. RocketRunner2099 said:

    Great video, I always say this but awesome shirt Julian

    A bit confusing but I guess that just means I have some learning to do about quantum mechanics😅

    July 10, 2019
    Reply
  11. Adam Schoedel said:

    I made it about 45 seconds into this video before my brain melted and I couldn't follow what he was saying. I love this kind of stuff, but I have limits.

    July 10, 2019
    Reply
  12. Robert Fousch said:

    So short answer is we don’t know….ok.

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  13. Dennis Dueck said:

    1:34 so if we take something moving faster than the speed of light like a tachyon collide it with something slower than the speed of light #anything it should make a black hole that light can't escape???🤔🤔🤔

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  14. Scott Powers said:

    Why do you all act like it is impressive that light can't escape a black hole? Light can't escape anything that is black in color.

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  15. Max Boomage said:

    this guy needs a pie in the face.

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  16. Garrett Higgins said:

    Phonons? I thought sound was just vibrating molecules

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  17. MW2366 said:

    Soo… lemme get this straight.
    Black holes, as defined by this video, are basically a space where a sound was produced so violently (Supernovas, collapsing stars, etc.) that it could even suck light in…?
    Could this be where dark matter could come into effect, containing the size of the sound that a black hole produces when it first collapsed?

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  18. gas puri 20 percent befikre 3.5 said:

    I dont think one can do justice to such advanced concepts by condensing them to a 4 minute pop science video.

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  19. Lukas Jameson said:

    This is the most quickest way to end all humanity.

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  20. Armando Az1 said:

    What's the point of researching this…. Unless you wanna end this world faster, what is the blackhole becomes self substain in your lab

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  21. bitegoatie said:

    Hawking is wrong and we need to rethink quantum mechanics.

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  22. Bruce Ferguson said:

    Stargate was ahead of its time.

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  23. Squishy Potato said:

    just don't create The Sonic irl 😨

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  24. MakeMeThinkAgain said:

    Great T-shirt. I would be happy to just find the can dead so we can move on. Maybe Seeker could do an April Fools Day episode announcing that… please.

    EDIT: At least no one has tried to extend the metaphor even further and visualize Hawking Radiation as virtual hairballs.

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  25. PissMyAss Lynch said:

    Poor cat on your shirt

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  26. Xeno Bardock said:

    Black holes in reality are toroidal plasma. That's what astronomers are observing at the center of galaxies and misinterpreting as black holes.

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  27. Earla Weese said:

    I LOVE SCIENCE!!!!!!!!

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  28. John Smith said:

    I would have liked a visualization of the sonic black hole. I have a poor image in my mind of what you were describing.

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  29. IsleofMAN said:

    We need a Quantum computer now!!!

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  30. prerana sinha said:

    Please make video on how close are we to build iron-man arc reactor

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  31. Hieronmus Nervig said:

    My brain just brokkanfpqogbiusdgoQIWNRH=

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  32. areamusicale said:

    and that's a theory, not fact.
    idiot !

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  33. JeXsi Grey said:

    WANTED: That shirt.

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  34. Captain Voluntaryist, The Statist Slayer said:

    very nice video

    Did not understand a thing. dumb this shit down a little

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  35. Ummer Farooq said:

    Is the black hole, a hole? Then maybe it could be used to see through like a telescope

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  36. Vamsi Krishna Reddy said:

    Had to see this video for 5 times to understand what exactly he is saying.

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  37. Icindace Gaming said:

    Wth Julian I thought you lived in Nvidia Rtx like 24/7..

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  38. Alvaro1ization said:

    A Blackhole can be created with the movement of his ears

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  39. Wu Li said:

    A black hole's temperature is proportional to its event horizon, while electromagnetism has proven to be proportional to temperature, meaning a black hole's charge and temperature both obey the Golden Ratio which has turned out to not be entirely random, but expresses a multidimensional equation. At the same time, the mathematics for Relativity have turned out to be indistinguishable from those used in thermodynamics, meaning the physicists and mathematicians will have prove that all their mathematics are not thermodynamic to begin with. Assuming all our mathematics and physics describe thermodynamics, the question is not whether we can prove a black hole has a temperature, but whether anyone can prove that anything doesn't have a temperature. A perfect vacuum is impossible, implying that asking if a black hole has a temperature is merely begging the question.

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  40. Daniel Downs said:

    After this im going to the Thunder bolts project. And gravity has never been proven.

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  41. kafe nigga said:

    Black holes dont exist and the earth is flat

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  42. Frank James Bonarrigo said:

    whatever whatever, can you dance to it?

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  43. Shachar Petrushka said:

    How do virtual particles pop into existence from no where?

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  44. Nadya Saraswati said:

    just divide by zero

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  45. NotJustCreative said:

    Virtual particles, is it a real thing or is it just an idea some people came up with?

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  46. Lech Krol said:

    I believe their on a right path. The faster an object travels the heavier it is. So supersonic or fast speeds would greatly amplify the weight of the mass.

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  47. Eletronic Music & PC Games said:

    What a waste of my time. Nothing new

    July 11, 2019
    Reply
  48. Padawan Atodon said:

    If virtual particles are popping into existence, doesn’t that seem analogous to the situation where a 3 dimensional object moves through a 2 dimensional plane, and is seen by a “flat lander” as popping into existence?
    Or, is there no spoon?

    July 12, 2019
    Reply
  49. shazib said:

    loving your channel keep it up!!

    July 12, 2019
    Reply
  50. onemale2012 said:

    sorry , virtual particles do not Pop in from empty space. nice recital though on information gathered which you believe is true even though pyshics is not unified and just repeating something you read to others does not mean you know what you are talking about, you and your physics leaders will never know that way they can keep getting money to repeat

    July 12, 2019
    Reply
  51. DOUBLE D said:

    Time to die

    July 12, 2019
    Reply
  52. Benjamin Nelson said:

    It just occured to me, what about gravitational waves? We know for sure those exist now, and that producing the energy to create them consumes a significant portion of the mass of merging black holes when those are the trigger.

    If the indestructability of quantum information is true, how does it say we could theoretically extract the information about the makeup of the mass that was converted into that wave?

    The theoretical mechanism for Hawking Radiation is, or at least was, entanglement. To my knowledge that requires something that can exist as a particle, though, and we haven't been able to demonstrate the graviton as yet. Even the LHC hasn't managed it.

    I'm pretty sure you can't entangle something that exists exclusively as a wave.

    July 12, 2019
    Reply
  53. Markos Gutierrez said:

    This makes me think that black holes are like massive sink drains for the universe

    July 12, 2019
    Reply
  54. Elterga said:

    I thought the lasers going through the super cooled rubidium were for making photonic molecules

    July 12, 2019
    Reply
  55. Safwaan Qureshi said:

    If light has no mass how can it be stuck in a black hole

    July 12, 2019
    Reply
  56. Pauly Walnuts said:

    Short Answer : Scientists have no clue what they're doing and they're just experimenting with random shit.

    July 12, 2019
    Reply
  57. S G said:

    We all know atomic vibration is not the same as electromagnetic "vibration", though.
    Also, the scales of experiment are incomparable.

    July 12, 2019
    Reply
  58. San Diego Rideshare Driver said:

    Have we discovered how to prevent WW3? All other discoveries depend upon that one. Don't they…

    July 12, 2019
    Reply
  59. Dimitri Sanchez said:

    Wasnt this guy the goat man in Narnia?
    pretty sure he is a magic creature…

    July 12, 2019
    Reply
  60. Nathaniel Hope said:

    Very cool!

    July 12, 2019
    Reply
  61. Grass1 said:

    How did you get a Schroeder's cat T-Shirt?

    July 12, 2019
    Reply
  62. Gigih Prakoso said:

    Okay….what?

    July 12, 2019
    Reply
  63. BBB H said:

    Re: Hawking radiation- this is kind of a picky/nit point, but, there are currently zero black holes that are emitting and Hawking radiation, nor will there be for trillions of years. The background temperature is simply too high for this to happen.

    Which, i suppose, is another good reason to study it in a lab- if we could make micro black holes in a particle accelerator, etc, then it would conceivably emit such.

    Interesting experiment here, too.

    B

    July 12, 2019
    Reply
  64. 4md t21 said:

    Breaking News:
    Scientists initiated a black hole!

    Auto:
    The user for this account was consumed by the black hole.

    July 12, 2019
    Reply
  65. Deshan Howard said:

    "Black hole sun won't you come, and wash away the rain" – Sound Garden

    July 12, 2019
    Reply
  66. Kyriakos Galanos said:

    😮

    July 12, 2019
    Reply
  67. Jeffrey Goldner said:

    You just wore that shirt a few videos ago? Buy a different shirt for each video in my honest opinion. Thx!

    July 12, 2019
    Reply
  68. Mohan RS said:

    So dumbholes are a thing now

    July 13, 2019
    Reply
  69. the awesome Joe said:

    You know that you might be able to breathe in space
    Have you ever tried it before?
    It could be a power that only you possess

    July 13, 2019
    Reply
  70. Tom Petrov said:

    I see that Jason Baldwin is now a science YouTuber…

    July 13, 2019
    Reply
  71. Catelyn Silverine said:

    lol i like the T-shirt haha

    July 13, 2019
    Reply
  72. andrew roden said:

    Thx bookworms

    July 13, 2019
    Reply
  73. 1000 Subs without Videos said:

    Don't make black hole

    July 13, 2019
    Reply
  74. hispanic paul blart said:

    Omg a chilli dog black hole!!!

    July 13, 2019
    Reply
  75. Coolphoenix _07 said:

    0:35 I saw almost all pictures of the black holes came from the Interstellar reference…

    July 13, 2019
    Reply
  76. The Devil-Night said:

    does that mean that dark matter behaves like a fluid that they used to creat it

    July 13, 2019
    Reply
  77. The Devil-Night said:

    does that mean that dark matter behaves like a fluid that they used to creat it

    July 13, 2019
    Reply
  78. puper man said:

    1:04 CoryxKenshin?

    July 13, 2019
    Reply
  79. Zionist World Order said:

    too terrestrial to actually explain the unknowns of a real black hole if it even exists as anything near we imagine.

    July 14, 2019
    Reply
  80. Mark said:

    Run the "wow signal" through it☝

    July 14, 2019
    Reply
  81. Little strawberry said:

    Dnews/seeker fell off 😏

    July 14, 2019
    Reply
  82. Marco Colo said:

    Y

    July 14, 2019
    Reply
  83. ryan vo said:

    It only takes one bad experiment to end the whole world.

    July 14, 2019
    Reply
  84. Nedjean said:

    Trace from DNews!! I found him today in person!

    Uno dos of trace, or Trace Dominguez. Subscribe to his new channel..

    July 14, 2019
    Reply
  85. G Gamextra said:

    This is the start of StarWars

    July 15, 2019
    Reply
  86. something simple said:

    Well scientists are confused… That what happens when two spinning black holes collide… Can they just do it with the sonics one's??

    July 15, 2019
    Reply
  87. dubbadan1 said:

    Unbelievable!

    July 15, 2019
    Reply
  88. Instant know said:

    Can you make one video on scientific research of black gold searched by TIFT ?

    July 15, 2019
    Reply
  89. MetaBrownie said:

    Hawking radiation
    Using Quantum mechanics to redefine quantum mechanics

    IT HURT ITSELF IN ITS CONFUSION

    July 15, 2019
    Reply
  90. Akos Matuska said:

    A bullshit,which amaze people,that has no relationship with real nature,and they call themself scientists.

    July 16, 2019
    Reply
  91. Jason Chen said:

    What happened to Trace? He returned for a while, then he disappeared again. He was the original host for a long time and did the whole podcast styled science multi episode thing on a separate show. Bring back Trace!!!

    July 17, 2019
    Reply
  92. vikas mhjn said:

    I couldn't understand a thing !

    July 23, 2019
    Reply
  93. hambone0000 said:

    Holy Cow, Digimon is more complicated than I thought.

    July 24, 2019
    Reply
  94. Jackson McGinnis said:

    They covered this like 2 years ago already it's not news lol

    July 24, 2019
    Reply
  95. Spiral Baka said:

    "we need to rethink quantum mechanics"
    how often did we need to rethink quantum mechanics in the past anyway?

    July 27, 2019
    Reply
  96. Alex Bordon said:

    I have a new gravity, time and consciousness theory that connects quantum mechanics with gravity and with existence, what should I do?

    August 13, 2019
    Reply
  97. Michael Roller said:

    Wtf is wrong with his ears? He had such a weird body, it's making me uncomfortable.

    August 15, 2019
    Reply
  98. Jake said:

    DO THE EXPERIMENT IN SPACE

    August 22, 2019
    Reply
  99. Russell Satterfield said:

    Seems like particles, so dense,that travel faster than speed of light are consuming(pulling into center)digesting(breaking down to single particles),and ejecting(via radiation)

    October 19, 2019
    Reply
  100. Russell Satterfield said:

    Also if you rewind time that info would go back in black hole and come out event horizon restored

    October 19, 2019
    Reply

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