How Quantum Computers Break Encryption | Shor's Algorithm Explained

46 Comments

  1. Shreeya Mittal said:

    Being a quantum computer is hell…

    And not hell.

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  2. Amir Weisenstern said:

    Great explanation (also the example that follows)
    Quick question: can you refer me to the reason of : if A and N do not share common divider then there is a P where A to the power of P = mXN+1?

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  3. TruthNerds said:

    Awesome explanation (and presentation)!

    There is one misrepresentation though: By far not all encryption on the Internet is based on the assumption that factoring integers is hard. In fact, reliance on this computational hardness assumption is pretty much exclusive to RSA (though there also exist very rarely used variants of the Schnorr signature scheme that seek to increase their security in this manner).

    Most asymmetric schemes used on the Internet are based on the computational hardness assumption regarding calculating discrete logarithms[1], in particular Diffie-Hellman and its elliptic curve derivates.

    And symmetric ciphers, which are used to encrypt the bulk of the data, are generally based on neither. Simply put, block ciphers (the most common type) are usually based on combining reversible, simple operations such as XOR, table-based substitution ("S boxes") and bit permutations, and repeatedly applying them for N rounds such that the resulting function becomes mathematically "unapproachable" by any known means.

    [1] which however can also be done using Shor's algorithm.

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  4. brianpso said:

    Holy shit, if you tap "left arrow" at 3:10 just after Henry finishes saying "quantum", you'll land exactly when he said "computer" on 3:05. Quantum tunneling through a video.

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  5. Alex Cat said:

    Best explanation of Shor's algorithm for non-physicist!

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  6. Bengi Yardımlı said:

    Whaaat?

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  7. Matías Fermín Páez said:

    There is a videoooooooooooooooooo

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  8. Marc477 said:

    10:17 says "this equation is a tad subtle and may not immediately be clear", i thought we already reached that part.

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  9. Bei L said:

    This is so well explained!

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  10. Dmitrii said:

    *seventeenminutesphysics

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  11. Abhinav Gangwar said:

    Hey i tried factoring that number which you said took you 9 minutes, but it's repeatedly showing insufficient memory error!!, how much RAM did you had????

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  12. Nuna said:

    So, if quantum computing became the norm, would it basically kill ransomware? Or am I not understanding

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  13. Luke Palmer said:

    Wow thanks, it's nice to see an in-depth description that isn't so jargon laden that I can still … kinda … follow it. Man all that "1 more than a multiple of N" stuff would have been pretty dense if I hadn't already been familiar with modular arithmetic though. I also, before seeing this, thought that discrete log encryption was safe against Shor's algorithm, but it seems that that's precisely what it does! Daaannnngg

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  14. KotSR said:

    If you wanted to make the viewer curious, you acheived that. If you wanted to explain a concept to be understood, you failed.

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  15. TheAndrew0085 said:

    Dashlane ad disclosure should occur at the beginning of the video, not jury before the ad itself. The video is strongly relevant to internet security so the fact that it was sponsored by an internet security company is extremely relevant and should be made clear before the video begins.

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  16. M. Duncan said:

    Basically any random dude walking down the street with a quantum computer will be able to see my nudes not far from now… Interesting.

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  17. PanosGTL said:

    I’m so high right now, and somehow I understood everything.

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  18. xway2 said:

    So if Moore's law holds for quantum computers (number of qubits), which I guess is quite the "if", we've got about 16 years to transition to new types of encryption. That's assuming no better algorithms are discovered in that time.

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  19. glitch gamer said:

    How long we are from breaking a 64bit encrypted number

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  20. TheMightyMat said:

    So how far are we from developing a quantum computer powerful enough to run this algorithm? If the public info is less than 10 years, several governments are probably already doing it lol. I get the feeling that while development on it at the moment is slow, there only needs to be a few breakthroughs and suddenly "ok don't put anything sensitive on the internet for a few years while we work out quantum cryptography" becomes a thing….

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  21. Birgilios Marmaroglou said:

    You proved to be of value, I understand next to nothing.

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  22. Pulse Fel said:

    so take a guess, find remainder, run more and more guesses till you hit the same remainder again, subtract the two powers, you now have p

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  23. nin1ten1do said:

    Pretty fine idea.. Meaby we can stop concentrate energy to NAME whole superposition particle and just accept it in sumary we get.. Reverse analysis it is not be possible but what ever we need broke the lock! It is same principle like on linear equation where you can get good sumary by manny way and all is good.. Reverse analysis it is also dificult to get same way.. If you catch my meaning.. We just meaby need neural net do the job without thinking about how mashine make it.. Coz algorithm what will be solve dat problem will be evolving..

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  24. rocksedge2000 said:

    So . . . . magic.
    Don't you tell me that was math, you just spoke sorcery!
    You're lucky I didn't gather a mob of villagers with pitchforks and torches!

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  25. Antonio Verardi said:

    Great video, man! 🙂

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  26. Fact Sheet said:

    1:51 By the way the factors for that are: 8623 × 1418 402449 × 491390 470288 920494 907091 × 9 023663 461465 973601 719932 809325 754174 066323 (43 digits)

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  27. Dogmakarma Store said:

    The single thing that quantum computing provides, better than any other factor, is DATA SECURITY. Just ask the DOD.

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  28. RedLeader327 said:

    My brain exploded.

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  29. A Round Thing said:

    I understood everything!

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  30. OBmaster said:

    Felt Smart, until I start watching this video 🙁

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  31. hussain alattas said:

    brain fart

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  32. Michael Belonio said:

    Why am I seeing these Calculus and other advanced equations, this is making my YouTube only brain melt!!!

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  33. Michael Belonio said:

    That's why US government, Apple, and other tech giants are buying and/or making quantum computers, to mine our data, nice 😑

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  34. 2acc asd said:

    pretty much math and physics
    too much for me

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  35. Jose Flores said:

    Making me feel smarter as I'm expecting to get back my (probably bad) college grades in next day or 2

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  36. Baptiste Pattyn said:

    Quantum computers will not break encryption… as they will first be used to make it stronger so that when quantum computers hit the consumer market (if they ever will) the encryption will be strong enough as it is today.

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  37. Titiana Rasputin said:

    Quantum computers don't break encryption because quantum computers don't exist.

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  38. Lori Curtis said:

    thanks for getting me interested in physics! I will now major in math/physics

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  39. milind khamkar said:

    Just quantum quantum, superposition, guess, power….. Multiple multiple multiple multiple multiple multiple multiple multiple multiple multiple multiple multiple multiple multiple that's it.

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  40. Derva Kommt von hinten said:

    so if i understood you correctly then what you are saying is… what exactly? xD

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  41. Evol App said:

    next video: How Encryption Breaks Quantum Computers, please!

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  42. Nightttshade said:

    I find it resonant to my discrete maths learning this semester, quite interesting to me.

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  43. randmazn said:

    I understood this video in 1 out of 14 million realities

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  44. John Carlo Mirabueno said:

    Does your brain also hurt while trying to grasp this?

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  45. Daniel Schick said:

    whoosh

    May 24, 2019
    Reply
  46. Experimenting new world said:

    Could not understand …. But nice video as you have described it elaborately, useful for the people working in the related field.

    May 24, 2019
    Reply

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