Closer to China: China's Science and Technology I- the latecomer catches up 01/24/2016



science and technology have become prime drivers of global competitiveness changing the fate of Nations China's economic future as outlined in the 13th five-year plan 2016 to 2020 is founded on innovation especially in science and technology but while science is greatly valued in China it has a complex history for a thousand years China led the world in science the four great inventions of modernity compass gunpowder paper printing were all invented in China but when China turned insular closing itself off from the rest of the world it fell far behind the West and into abject decline historically science was never a centerpiece of Chinese culture and China didn't begin to promote science fully until the early 20th century to know where science is going in China let's examine its recent history we feature an exclusive conversation with a pioneer of China's science the former chairman of China's state Science and Technology Commission dr. song Jen to tell the story of science and China is to bring us closer to China many marvel and China's ancient civilization but in terms of modern science and technology China is a lay comer China's ancient Science and Technology peaked around the time of the earliest song dynasty from 960 to 1127 but declined after the Ming Dynasty began in 1368 for thousands of years China's old style schools taught mainly Confucianism literature in other liberal arts it was not until 1895 that China's first state-run modern university was founded and natural science was introduced into the curriculum moreover China's industrialization commenced in the 1860s almost 100 years behind the West in the process was greatly disrupted by numerous Wars I was privileged to speak with dr. song Jan who is chairman of China's state Science and Technology Commission from 1984 to 1998 it was under dr. song's leadership that China began developing its high-tech industries in addition joining us are mr. Renu ling a former senior official in the state science and technology commission and dr. lu by executive vice dean of the school of medicine of chin-hua university dr. Zhang Jian with state councilor and chairman of the state science and technology Commission from 1986 to 1998 during this time span of 12 years he led the transformation of China's science system which then propelled China's economic growth and improved the lives of hundreds of millions of people under dr. song's leadership the sparks program catalyze rural industry and the torch program gave rise to high tech giants including Lenovo in the Huawei dr. Soames advised helped create the National Natural Science Foundation born in a difficult agent to a poor family soon gained grasp the chance to study and step by step was promoted to the position that oversaw China's science and technology he said his conviction was to rejuvenate China through science and education he has devoted his life to this grand vision with all the great developments in China science and technology is a critical part of what made China what it is today and to understand science and technology we have to understand its history its relationship in China you've lived this history literally throughout your life I'm looking forward to hearing it particularly during its crucial times from the middle 1980s to the late 1990s when you were responsible for all science and technology in China as chairman of the state Science and Technology Commission so I look forward to our discussions about science and technology in China the intrud AHA drug war in science and technology in China cannot be viewed out of the context of its history the memory of the torturous century from 1840 to 1945 is still fresh for all Chinese from the opium war to the first half of the 20th century so the whole nation ponder why was everything so lame why were we lagging behind with him why so much sacrifice shisha with why no access to a happy life now they heard that GAD finally we reached a consensus in particular the thinkers and intellectuals gained an insight on how science and technology mattered our misfortune arose from the decline of science and technology which was a result of the closed-door policy of the Qing Dynasty the may 4th movement started in 1919 when intellectuals called upon society to develop science and technology if China wants a happy life for its people it must have two elements in place one democracy no autocracy or dictatorship can be practiced second science only with science and democracy can our nation improve people's lives and have prosperity for the future being that like that Senate Java the may 4th movement in 1919 was an anti imperialist anti feudal political and cultural campaign in the two most important martim values the movement promoted to reinvent China where science and democracy at that time the young Chinese were seeking a way to end the decades of invasion and occupation by the foreign countries begun around 1840 with the opium wars the decline of the Ching dynasty proved that cutting itself off from the outside world will not help China don't want that with that ancient China can be counted as an eastern empire bagged and China was really large perhaps the earliest and most powerful empire in the world that Miyagi dishwasher drew what that she can repeat unit what did we use to support ourselves from what region Science and Technology Joseph Needham authored the book science and civilization in China to record the history of our country's scientific development read the book and he really has a very good summary of everything the four great inventions are known to everybody the compass paper making typography the Gunpowder but actually we invent it a lot more seismograph Chinese herb medicine etc science and technology really promoted China's development this has to be fully recognized there are coal that but later corruption led to the decline of our economy no doubt about it but more importantly after 1840 a lot of Imperial countries became United and attacked China thrusting China into abject poverty and what thewhat well yeah the end curricula children watching Chinese cultures largely aft in two thousand years based on computers and are the entire history they respect more arm poetry literature philosophy then science science has never been a centerpiece science has been perhaps some utility it's never been considered to be a high level intellectual pursuit if you will and and and the other thing is that China has in its history never been through something like enlightenment or Renaissance there's no Newton there's no Darwin and there's a one period in China's recent history which is the may 4th movement beginning of the 20th century in which there are two slogans one is called a missed democracy and the other is called a mr. science but I think it's incomplete you know because of war because of all these other civil wars and also Japanese invasion this has not been complete trailer Jenga phindeli bang China has been pursuing the goal for a century after a hundred years of civil wars and wars against invaders and according to current estimates 13 years make a new generation and so a hundred years saw three generations of conflict without a development of science and technology she knew what it was out for the founding of the new China that we stopped fighting and started to shift our focus to industrialization and science you need Riya ah Joseph Gumi aha cooker usual when new China was founded it was very poor but yet even in the early years there was great scientific achievement that China created in the development of the atomic bomb initial space program why is it that even though China was so poor in those early years that it was able to devote resources to scientific endeavors namu myoho Conte and II when the new China was first established more countries block China severely restricting our development are they threatening our safety yeah unfulfilled are we here hey so means that a very poor and vulnerable country like ours would have to have strong national security otherwise we would find it difficult to stand well on our own so no matter how difficult it is we will strengthen ourselves in terms of the weapons we get as a nation only when we make great achievements saying making atomic bombs rockets and satellites as I myself had experienced with the whole country applaud why we have stronger national security nearly upon quota which Emma woman avenge ends in channel bashing and vacuo clean and under for about 20 years in the 1980s and the 1990s we were dedicated to reform and opening-up under mr. Tung scalpings policy we achieved quite a lot over the years he blazed our trail for modern science and technology in China and rolled out the strategy of revitalizing the country through science and education which was highly critical for us the gap here mister dunne see helping put forth the idea of focusing on economic development driven by science and technology y'all bad wrong with you but to settle the development of Science and Technology in China there were four things to do first promoting education high education or science based education with more focus in science and engineering without the proper development of higher education people will not be well educated the most talented young people will not receive enlightenment from science and technology all former Chinese leaders mr. Tong Xiao ping in particular attached great importance education mr. dong even personally oversaw the work on entrance examinations to universities and colleges in China with his efforts the system started enrolling students and training talents from 1977 in addition mr. Duncan sistah don sending students to the UK and the US for overseas studies the more the better his goal was to send over tens of thousands one of the most important factors in China's rapid development in science obviously talent since new China was founded more than half of Chinese students studying overseas returned to the motherland many of them became the core of their fields the tragedy of the Cultural Revolution which began in 1966 interrupted almost everything including college education after the decade-long political havoc China's then paramount leader Deng Xiao ping personally pushed to resume the Gaucho or college entrance examination in 1977 whether a student will be enrolled in the college and if so which one was now decided by his or her performance on the exam instead of by family background this gave hope to millions of young Chinese over the years China has been enhancing a system to educate students in science and technology according to 2014 statistics of Ministry of Education there are over two hundred fifteen thousand full-time staff working on research and development in China's universities Cromwell's Ikeda yahuah Bosch China must independently develop an education system the number of universities has already soared from around 200 at the start to 2,500 oppressive our ultimate goal is to have at least one University per area in the 1950s only about 20,000 students nationwide were enrolled in universe cities every year now we have 7.5 million with more than 600,000 masters and PhD students so in my mind this is great progress made what was here hundreds of thousands go abroad they pay their own way to the u.s. the UK Australia Canada etc to get an education abroad according to some statistics I came across last year about 3 million young people studied abroad from the 1980s to present a million of them have returned to China for employment and became pillars of China's science and technology development this is how the policy of opening up helps the China scientific development lags behind that of the UK the US and Russia by 200 years and industrialization by 150 years now it is high time for a generation to catch up yard palais and the pea ii training and attracting talented people in large patches your third total increasing investment to support science and technology it was never easy to find investment in the 1980s despite the difficulties we need to spare money for the capable and the talented to develop science technology and industrialization we're fourth allowing flexibility for policies and staying open to everything in the past individuals were never encouraged to do business but current policies have become market oriented we even encourage some people in research organizations and universities to set up their own businesses dating back to the very early years half of the 250 research stations were encouraged to be more market oriented researchers should be invited to the marketplace for them to get a clear idea of what to do to meet the demands of the market and improve society's productivity a good example is the establishment of national hi-tech industrial zones under the torch program so far there are about 120 national hi-tech industrial zones in China and more than 20,000 companies with about 10 million staff operate in these zones these companies enjoy total revenue use of about twenty two trillion remain be or over three point five US dollars and accounted for ten percent of China's GDP in 2014 world renowned companies like Lenovo Huawei and ZTE thrive in B zones substantial progress and supercomputer telecommunication and bio engineering has been achieved in these zones as you know China's history a recent history has ups and downs and a lot of times science is leading the way to get out of the troubles and do a list something for example during cultural revolutions almost everything shut down but you there's still us bar attic areas where people can still do science for example acupuncture people use the name of acupuncture actually student neuroscience right so that's a and in during the 1989 times well a lot of Western scientists are pulling out from China and Western investment pulling out of China but science is still in an area where government could focus on and kind of pull people together uncovering the truth we are on our way to the re one of the most dangerous districts in the city of Karachi we were told that were just about to cross the border between Malaysia and the Philippines going the distance to get the story we meet the real people with real hope for many young Thais more Thai is one of the only ways to live their families out of poverty behind every corner is a great story assignment Asia expect the unexpected culture Express see the world in color unlike in the 1970s or 1980s science is now becoming less popular among Chinese students according to a survey by job-hunting website only 3 percent of females and 7 percent of males want to engage in research work more and more young people prefer to become entrepreneurs bankers lawyers or civil servants which either offer higher salaries or have more power in society the last several generations of China's most senior leaders all were trained in science and became engineers before they went into politics today it's different there our leadership have different training and economics and law and different aspects and even we see among students today there is less interest in focusing on science and engineering and more in investment banking or entrepreneurship or ways to make money how do you see this a trend where a scientific and engineering background is not as important as it was a couple of decades ago Janusz are in 1956 China proposed that it should promote scientific development at that time we had three scientists surnamed Chen Chen Jason Chen Zhen Shan and Cheng which hung with Chen Zhen Shan becoming the first to receive national recognition and a reward I remember they each got 10,000 RMB as a bonus for their work 10,000 RMB at that time equals several millions nowadays so we were really impressed therefore when the central government called on everybody to aim for Science and Technology many young people like me made up our minds to become engineers when my professor asked me about my goal I answered that I wanted to be an engineer actually many students wanted to learn science and engineering particularly engineering and most of the former leaders of China were engineers who Jintao and Wen Jiabao are both examples at the same time we're also aware the nowadays many are learning finance and law driven by the temptation of a good salary and other tendencies in society today many lack the patience and willingness to work down-to-earth which is what we need also research takes time to deliver results so people's desire for quick success also causes quite a great impact on society gesture they wanna show you Yaya donít talk about a job of course anyone would know through his parents who do science legal and engineering work how much they earn or who work at the Chinese Academy of Sciences where the salary is such information matters as it exerts a subtle influence on young people many of whom would then refuse to carry out scientific research and innovation with a down-to-earth attitude which is against the direction we should head for and creates a bad tendency in society in terms of students this is pretty bad this is pretty bad I mean this is true perhaps in the United States and perhaps more so in the United States I've heard harvest presidents talk to students about this and you know I mean it's all driven by money and there's nothing wrong with that I mean everyone's want to have a better life and in a better life and somehow associated with to certain extent with money so I mean there's not much you can complain about people who choose to do this it's about what we can do in as a you know policymakers as educators I think it from my perspective I would tell my students you know I mean I've seen many people who have a lot of money but still unhappy wealth is not always associated with happiness or even success is always always associated with some happiness as you look to the future as you see China now how do you feel and those of your generation revolutionaries and have experienced China's remarkable development after so many problems of all different kinds how do you feel about China today particularly its role in the world in terms of China making a contribution to world culture and world science and technology basic research is the foundation of high-tech development and should enjoy national support as a major source of funding actually China's Ministry of Finance has increased its earmark for research in recent years China's scientific community has made a lot of progress at physics biology astronomy geography etc but I think there's still a long way to go before we can complete with America and Europe we need to change the social structure we were used to in the farming society and emphasize education with greater openness and more investments as a late comer in science and technology China naturally needs generations of efforts for further progress this cap can never be bridged overnight and so I think we should not be too anxious if we just continue working hard following the present direction within one or two generations I believe you would like to be on the way to make greater contributions to mankind simple sure that don't go there current science and technology in China is not yet capable of playing a decisive role in the fields of basic research or high technology and still requires further learning and development but regarding basic industry China has learned a lot and is doing quite well in building houses generating electricity paving roads growing crops etc – I assure you generally we still excel in these fundamental production sectors not only due to our large population huge size and scale of development and determination but also because of our science and technology development therefore I really appreciate and admire the innovation of a IIb or the Asian infrastructure investment bank which quite matches China's conditions and facilitates our projects in building high-speed railways power plants and water conservation having built the Three Gorges Dam China is starting to lead in a well rounded way in terms of water conservation electricity transmission civil engineering dam building cement and steel industry etc the whole world is looking to Chinese companies for relevant support tre what you're there all the achievements we have made will help realize AII B's purpose aii be for China to maintain its momentum science is crucial China's leaders emphasize science and technology to enhance the spirit of the country as well as to develop the strength of the economy when the Chinese academies of science and engineering hold their biennial conference all China's leaders every member of the Politburo Standing Committee attend for the full day and President Xi Jinping gives the address in no other country do political leaders so honor its scientists when to yoyo won China's first Nobel Prize in science for her discovery of an anti-malaria drug it was a source of national pride but also of controversy because she is not a member of the elite Chinese Academy of Sciences China would do well to heed the advice of dr. song Gen a true scientist who in his mid 80s continues to be productive in the spirit of full disclosure dr. song is my mentor in China it was he who first invited me to China in the late 1980s and I visit him frequently how is China seeking to catch up with the scientific capabilities of developed countries we follow China's science to keep closer

46 Comments

  1. Xayalat Phomivanh said:

    Banking and paper money was invented in China long time ago before the West, that was science, too

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  2. vincent ang said:

    In the competion when someone are beating u by yuor own ideas and coming out with it better than u, it is "stealing". For these chineses, copying things is learning, and making it better than the original is progressing. So ppl, please dont cry like a baby if chinese has better mindset, that is the one most importan think u should learn from them.

    Only ideas and thought which u cant steal or be stolen is ideas/thought that never exist or invented.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  3. Doodle Boy said:

    Hey it's not Chinese technology
    I am sure they have stolen it from somewhere

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  4. Light Dancing said:

    Notice they never mention their desperate need to catch up with other nations by stealing massive quantities of proprietary technologies from other nations. WIthout that the would have stayed 100 years behind everyone else, no doubt about it.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  5. Tổ Quốc Không Gian said:

    copy cat

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  6. shuang chiang said:

    I am proud of my country. She suffered a lot in Second World War… Bullied by Japanese and many other countries.God bless china. China is not an aggressor , they are rising peacefully.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  7. Duke71 said:

    this is fake news, ha chiner makes crap#

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  8. andtam008 said:

    古時不是有理學嗎?媽的,朝廷不重視,還焚書坑儒,令很多古籍失傳。張衡造出九龍吐珠地動仪是那時代的上乘算法。

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  9. Hing Yee said:

    Hurrah! Hurrah!

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  10. geezass price said:

    usa… be afraid… be very afraid… lmfao

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  11. palash21 said:

    At the 3:40 th minute of the video it says Song Jian receiving his doctor certificate when he visited Russian as state councilors. But actually its in India. May be Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  12. Jesus Vicente Fernandez said:

    China is run by engineers. America is run by politicians and lawyers, doing political and legal engineering to clusterfuck the common man..

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  13. Corrine Tsang said:

    Chinese high school students who are rank 1st in math and science has to take a 19 hours exam just to enter college.China takes 200 most  promising graduates students(genus?) out of 10 million graduate students and pay full tuition ,room and boards all over the world.Once they developed something China can used,they are given unlimited funds(20 billion dollars) to developed graphene,turbo-scam jet,high speed rail, 4th generation nuclear reactor,quantum communication quantum radar,rockets and the manufacturing of gas hydrates.There are currently,300,000 Chinese students paying a higher tuition fee and studying  in the US.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  14. Rocco Romano said:

    WELL IS GOOD TO KNOW CHINA S NOW THE FIRST COUNTRY IN THE WORLD IN TECHNOLOGY NO LIKE THE WESTERN COUNTRIES WITHOUT THE GHOST BEHIND WHO RUN THE COUNTRY IN THE SHADOWS AND WITHOUT ATTACK ANOTHER COUNTRIES KILLING PEOPLE AND ROBING HIS NATURAL RESOURCES AND SPREADING CORUPTION TREASON WAR AND  LYING TO HIS OWN COUNTRY.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  15. Sun Wu said:

    I fucking hate confucianism. It is such a pedantic form of education and a sluggish practice in Chinese culture

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  16. 神州 Shenzhou said:

    China may be late to modernization, but China will regain its former status one day. China already has the world's largest highspeed railway network, the world's faster supercomputer and the world's biggest radio telescope. China is planning on connecting Asia to the Americas through highspeed railway and is also planing on building a bigger particle accelerator than the CERN.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  17. Alioune Badara Nguer said:

    La Chine devient la première puissance économique mondiale

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  18. Mr Sharath Gopalan Aiyangar said:

    Hats of to you chinese. You know the value for investing in local Industry.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  19. Tired AF said:

    Liberal art, feminism study degree.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  20. songarkng1 said:

    google (PISA test 2015 ) tells where the future of China is going .

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  21. Isaac Wang said:

    God bless China

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  22. cakeman son said:

    well theres a new superpower with a space dream

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  23. 李中虚 said:

    妈的,翻墙学会了,英语却没学会,听不懂

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  24. China Icons said:

    Interesting watch

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  25. song le said:

    fuck china. get uot islands

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  26. srdtpa said:

    Needs to invest MORE in sci&tech.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  27. J Nigel said:

    i never trust chinese media just like CCTV or Xinhua. they are like the extension of the chinese government.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  28. Shinji Kataoka said:

    China needs to bring back the popularity of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics ) and create a policy to discipline students to participate in STEM education programs and majoring in science related fields in college.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  29. hanafi tanudjaya said:

    china soon makes her own computer processors , no need to buy intel or amd all china home grown

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  30. hanafi tanudjaya said:

    china state administration system is the best.Democracy is fail system.Look at India and others democracy countries

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  31. xing su said:

    ccav居然会出现在这种并不存在的网站,有意思

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  32. jlwc88 said:

    Surly China again in the 21st century…

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  33. UpNfamish2 said:

    No Newton, it is because of language and smaller countries. In the West, Arabic persevered Ancient Greek scientific knowledge and efforts and then fueled the Renaissance which in turn , by Latin, led to the discovery of modern science all over Europe; its many different small countries While in China and in the East Asia; its three countries,Japan, Korea and China, the "Latin" was Han language. Cultures under Han language we're could not lead to fermentation of scientific ideas.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  34. joe blow said:

    china's leaders may be part of the communist party, but they have strong science/tech educational background. in America, our leaders are life long fundraisers who have a liberal arts background.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  35. torsteintt said:

    You mean China's Stolen Science and Technology – the latecomer copies up

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  36. Jahanzeb Zarkoon said:

    Congratulation our Elder Brother China to New Super power of World we stand with u in every movement Long live

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  37. 任戰 said:

    China is not a latecomer in science and technology but it jjust entered into a sleep mode hundreds 0f years ago. The world's first earthquake detector was invented in China, centuries before European. Chinese began making steel ( mixing and heating wrought iron and cast iron together) in the 6th century, many centuries before any other countries. The world has been led to believe that science and technology is something originated from the west but they just have no idea how far the west was actually behind the east for the first 15 to 16 centuries.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  38. Layyllz Ben said:

    China aren't the first country invent the things you mentioned in the first place keep that in mind it was Muslim Spain which was called andalus you wouldn't know or believe because it was an untold history not majority know of it but if you research it you will surly find out

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  39. Luis Andrade said:

    China's economic model might not be. based on religion but the gains that China has made in technology are nothing short of Miracle!!

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  40. Calvin Wong said:

    You are a great communist comrade. Long live the CCP! Chairman Mao is the lord of ten thousand years!

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  41. dajowira said:

    they are reverse engineering from alien technology, same as america, except for china americans are the aliens.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  42. kien leow said:

    well i think china is even better that some country!they cant even crack and absorb the tech,not to mention copy!! ^^

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  43. Kaizer Kempfer said:

    Espionage first (copy) talke later.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  44. Otto Jihaad said:

    good job dudes and dudets.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  45. SEAN PAN said:

    You can't label shows like this— governmental propaganda.

    June 30, 2019
    Reply
  46. dadaweiwei said:

    Technology of thief national. lol

    June 30, 2019
    Reply

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