Biotechnology Lecture Video 3

So at the smallest “omics” level, we have
genomics. And that’s the study of genomes or all of the DNA for a particular
species. So we could be talking about the mouse genome or the corn genome or the
human genome. And we’re figuring out all the A, T, C’s and G’s for each of these species. The human genome project was an important project I’ll talk about here
in a minute. And then we’re going to talk a little bit about the implications of
genomics including comparative genomics, functional genomics, personal genomics,
and epigenomics. So the human genome project was a thirteen year project to map out the human genome. The human genome project is now available to everyone as a public database. Originally, there were two different groups working on figuring out all those A, T, C’s, and G’s. Towards the end of the project, the
government encouraged them to work together, and it was decided that, instead of the human genome being a private thing that someone had to pay for, that it would be a public database that was available to everyone. And it is in fact available, to you, if you want to go do a search. I can give you a brief example here. This is a website that’s maintained by the National Institutes of Health and
you can search for all kinds of things. There’s a lot on here. You can browse by
organism to see what they have accomplished. You may or may not remember
that I am a bat biologist… Myotis…(typing) …are the little brown bats. And noticed three of our species – we have complete genomes available. Isn’t that a cute little face?? Another option is to go to the human
genome. And we could do a search for something we are maybe interested in. Maybe you wanted to find out what genes are involved in eye color…(typing) (Eye color is more complex than just a single gene) But we can do a quick browse and here we’ve got a list of the genes that have been identified as somehow involved and notice there’s some on chromosome 15, some on chromosome 17… We click on one of these. We’ve got a lot of information about the chromosome and exactly where
this is found on it. So here we are zoomed in on this little part of chromosome 15 and here we have a coding region. And I’m going to click
on here. This is going to show all the people involved in figuring out this particular section of this particular gene and the processes that it took to
do that. And then…the FASTA will actually show the code. So here we have the T, A, C’s and G’s for that particular section of that particular gene. This website will also allow you to do blast searches so you can compare different genomes and
actually see what certain genes have in common. This is a very powerful database
and it takes some practice to get used to how to use it, but once you can, it’s a very powerful tool for biotechnology. This video will give you a nice overview
of the history of the human genome project.

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