7 Scientific Urban Legends Debunked!


Hey smart people Joe here – stay tuned for a special announcement after the video. So I used to have this shirt. I know at least one of you was watching back
in 2013… Hey Kyle. For the rest of you are probably wondering
the same thing as me. What’s up with the hair? What this shirt means is that the microbes
in and on our bodies outnumber our own cells. Most common figure is by 10 to 1. Except… that’s not true. It’s a scientific urban legend. Yet this factoid continues to be shared and
recited as fact. I’m guilty of it too, I mean, my old video
is called “You’re Mainly Microbe” and it’s literally centered around this erroneous
factoid. It turns out that urban legends like this
are surprisingly common, even in science, and how they begin and the reasons why they
persist can teach us a lot about how science works, and when it doesn’t. At some point the 10-to-1 bacterial to human
cell ratio became “common knowledge”. Common knowledge is information that the average,
educated person in some group–the general public, scientists, whoever–accepts as reliable
without having to look it up, like how we all know that water freezes at 0˚C. We all know that, right? Somewhere along the line, people stopped asking
where this “common knowledge” came from. There are countless facts in science that
have become common knowledge. I mean, if research papers cited an original
source for every single fact they presented, it would be an absolute mess. Say you wrote a paper about synthesizing some
new chemical? Do you have to cite a paper that proves chemicals
are arrangements of different atoms? Ok, then do you need to cite something to
prove that atoms exist? Maybe Einstein’s 1905 paper on Brownian
motion? Or do you have to go back to John Dalton in
the early 1800s? You can see things get ridiculous pretty fast. But! Sometimes things that aren’t true become
common knowledge, or they’re corrected later, but the new information fails to replace the
old idea. Here’s an example: I wouldn’t be surprised
if at some point in your life, you probably heard that spinach was a particularly excellent
source of iron. I certainly remember being taught that, I
can’t even remember where. And–you can probably guess where I’m going
with this–it’s not true. In 1981, a biologist named Terry Hamblin studied
historical science papers and realized the iron content in spinach was misreported, thanks
to a misplaced decimal point, way back in the early 1900s. Except he didn’t cite a source for the misplaced
decimal point story either. And it turns out that THAT’s a myth too. Turns out the earliest old-school measures of iron in spinach were waaaay too high, and wrong, but because of contamination, not a misplaced decimal point. It’s science! Details matter! Spinach actually does contain large amounts
of iron, as much as red meat in some cases, but it also contains compounds that make the
iron it does have harder for us to absorb. So it’s not an exceptionally great source
of iron. Incidentally, it turns out “Popeye” creator E.C. Segar chose spinach as the sailor man’s food of choice for its high vitamin A content, not because of iron. It’s another case where the correction never
seems to spread as wide as the lie, and it’s a good reminder that a good story is not necessarily
a true story. And I’m willing to bet that at some point
in your life, you’ve taken vitamin C to help cure or prevent a cold. Yeah, that’s not true either. That myth traces to legendary scientist Linus
Pauling. In 1966 Pauling was convinced by a random
dude named Irwin Stone that taking large doses of Vitamin C would help him live longer, and
Pauling started taking doses equivalent to 1800 glasses of orange juice every day, and
wrote books and articles claiming that the colds he had suffered from his whole life
“no longer occurred”. Even though Linus Pauling won not one but
two solo Nobel Prizes in his life, dozens of studies since have proven he was wrong,
about vitamin C. It doesn’t significantly affect colds, and the only disease it definitively
prevents is scurvy. Yet somehow the cold myth still continues
today. Or maybe you’ve heard that you lose most
body heat through your head? That urban legend goes back to one military
study in the 1950s where people were left out in the cold with no hats on. I mean, you’re gonna lose most of your body
heat through your head if that’s all that’s exposed. Today scientists know the amount of body heat
you lose depends on the total surface area exposed, but parents everywhere are still
making sure you don’t leave home without a hat. You also don’t need to drink 8 glasses of
water a day. That urban legend probably goes back to one
set of dietary recommendations for water intake from 1945. Except many people who cited that number ignored
the part where it said most people get a majority of the water they need from food. It’s important to stay hydrated, but 8 glasses… I mean, like what size of glasses even?! And one of the most famous is that sugar causes
hyperactivity in children. This one seems totally logical, but more than
a dozen randomized controlled trials have failed to detect different behavior between
kids given large doses of sugar and kids who weren’t. That’s right, the cake is actually a lie! Turns out when parents even think their children
have been given a drink containing sugar (even if it’s actually sugar-free), they tend
to think their kids are being hyperactive. This particular urban legend traces its origin
back to California allergy doctor Benjamin Feingold in 1973, who with little to no evidence,
recommended removing artificial colors and flavors from the diets of hyperactive children,
and I guess people were like “why not sugar too!” I mean, kids are just kids, and they’re
gonna go nuts some times. Let’s go back to that 10-to-1 mainly microbe
cell number from the beginning. In 2010 a couple of researchers went on a
deep dive to find the original source, and the paper cited most often was this one, from
1977. It states the human body contains 100 trillion
microbial cells and 10 trillion of its own cells. Ten to one. Scroll down to reference #70 and we find the
source of the 100 trillion microbial cell number is this 1970 paper by Thomas Luckey,
which, when we read the paper, turns out was just a back of the envelope estimate, and
wasn’t based on any actual experiments. This has nothing to do with the rest
of the video, but I just have to mention Dr. Luckey was literally an honorary samurai,
which is awesome And going back to the original 1977 paper,
the human cell number comes from reference #27, a 1970 textbook by biologist Theodosius
Dobzhansky. I dug through the internet to find a copy
of it, and right there in chapter 1, with absolutely zero supporting evidence, is the
claim that a human body contains ten trillion cells. And there you have it. A back of the envelope estimate combined with
a totally unsupported approximation to create the very wrong and very widely shared fact
that human cells are outnumbered by microbes 10-to-1. Right about now you’re probably wondering
what the real numbers are. First, the original estimate for microbes
living inside us was calculated using the volume of the entire lower intestine. But the vast majority of your body’s microbes
live in your colon, which is only a portion of that volume. And yes, that’s where your poop is made. Using a more accurate volume of the average
colon–409 milliliters–and the number of bacteria we typically find per volume of poop,
in 2016 researchers calculated that your inner microbial population is… drumroll please… 39 trillion. Not 100 trillion. And as for the number of cells in the human
body? This is a seemingly simple question that you
might assume we biologists have known for a long time. But the truth is, until very recently, no
one really knew. Over the past couple centuries, estimates
have ranged from 5 billion to more than a quadrillion cells in our body. What makes it so difficult is that cells in
our body vary hugely in size and how tightly packed they are, so the only way to get a
good count is to estimate each organ individually. And that’s what a group of researchers did
in 2013. Based on actual evidence, their new number
is… 37.2 trillion cells in the average human body. That makes the ratio of microbe to you more
like 1 to 1… pretty much even stevens. Amazingly, although most of your mass comes
from muscle and bone cells, by sheer number, red blood cells make up more than 80% of the
cells in your body. bit more in favor of the microbes. But remember how I said almost all of your
inner microbes live in your colon? Well, you lose almost a third of them every
time you have a bowel movement, so every time you poop, the ratio swings in your favor,
at least for a few hours until they get their numbers back up. Doesn’t make as catchy a shirt though… Things we consider common knowledge can be
based on bad information, and despite the amazing power of science to correct its own
mistakes and uncover better and better knowledge over time… that good knowledge doesn’t
always spread out and replace the bad knowledge. So how do these scientific urban legends continue
to persist? More scientific journals exist today than
ever before, and we’re doing more science today than ever before. Most of that science is peer-reviewed, but
peer-reviewed doesn’t always mean something is true. If one false citation makes it into the system,
it can set up a domino effect as other people cite that bad fact instead of verifying the
original. The solution? Well, for you out there in the “general
public” at least, wherever you can, even if you think something is common knowledge,
try to learn where it came from. You might be surprised by what you find. But that’s easier said than done, because
most published science today isn’t freely available, at least not legally. Most scientific research today sits behind
paywalls, so even if you wanted to check a source, you couldn’t. Then what about this? Now, it’s easy to dump on Wikipedia. Anyone can edit it, and I mean, they have
en entire page titled “Wikipedia is not a reliable source”. It’s a paradooooox… wait, why don’t
I have a wikipedia page? Come on Kyle. But Wikipedia represents a collection of our
common knowledge. It’s the most widely read and widely accessible
information source on Earth. And at least one study has shown that Wikipedia
pages are more likely to cite scientific sources that are freely available. This isn’t an ad for Wikipedia, it just
seems like if you want to get good science out to the broadest audience, making it freely
available is not a bad place to start. The point, to me at least, is pretty clear. If you want common knowledge to be true, you
have to let true knowledge be common. Every one of us carries quite a few pieces
of incorrect knowledge in our heads. That is nothing to feel bad about. What matters is being comfortable enough with
the idea of not knowing everything that you’re able to replace bad knowledge when you find
better knowledge. Stay curious.

100 Comments

  1. It's Okay To Be Smart said:

    BIG EXCITING ANNOUNCEMENT!! We are now on Patreon! Come join our family: https://www.patreon.com/itsokaytobesmart
    For a while, you've been asking if there's another way you can support our show besides just watching and sharing the videos. The answer is now YES!!! Head over to our Patreon page to check out all the different perks, and thank you for your support… however you show it

    September 6, 2019
    Reply
  2. PiroSpringfield said:

    Supposedly if you encounter a scientific article behind a paywall, all you have to do is email the author for a copy of it

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  3. Rouverius said:

    1:20 "Am I a joke to you?" – Super-cooled water probably

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  4. Troy Reppas said:

    Great video and great wrap up quote.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  5. Thrizzeat said:

    Whoever did the Rocky running out of the port-a-potty, give them a raise. 😂

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  6. ffggddss said:

    When I was a kid, they told us there were 6 trillion cells in the human body. Heaven only knows where that number came from!

    Fred

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  7. Walt Kuznicke said:

    Joe you continue to amaze. Speaking of untrue, I hear the flat earth folks are looking for a few good men ? Remember, your PUBLIC BLOG assertion they made the Giza pyramid using string, now even for a correspondence Ph.d that's a real top ten hoot. Yeah, Joe their now lining up everywhere to try your insights. String , shadows, water, how about birds (?) always 'pyramid to code' essentials. Good luck Joe, I mean who knew pseudo intellect snob appeal worked ? You are funny.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  8. leeleechristmaslover said:

    Wait what? Cheerios really has that much iron?!

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  9. Shazia Jamshaid said:

    5:59 he kinda looks like Hank !!!!??…😲

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  10. Brandon Pepa said:

    I'm surprised you didn't mention the "glass is a liquid" myth. I know it's thoroughly debunked, but I've still heard people say it's a liquid semi-recently

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  11. Jerry Baker said:

    climate change

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  12. Ravick Bitencourt said:

    Internet, stop the cake-is-a-lie jokes. Please.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  13. Hellgrinde said:

    Idk bruh, i agree with you on everything except the sugar. When i give my kids cake, they strip naked and run around tearing up the house while screaming and cackling hysterically. Pretty much every single time lol

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  14. Dan Cooper said:

    Why don't I have a Wikipedia page?

    Wikipedia: You haven't been convicted of a crime, elected or appointed to a significant governmental position, and/or don't have enough money. Submission deleted.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  15. Hi Neil of 'Cidi Al-Masry' Sidi Al-Masri Sandage said:

    Thank you. ~ 2:2 Ratio. ~ 1 is a prime variable. Ratios do not use the unit of 1, Brains Crash.

    (Yes i know most recipes say 1table=3tea of this or that. ~ Ounce or Oz is both volume and weight, yet not in agreement, except if pure water, so call it "water volume" instead of o'u'n Contemporary Errors? Ratios with the unit of 1 get more errors, so Milli-Liters started being placed on Imperial Units which are more theme-based than mathematicals.)

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  16. 5pecular said:

    Vitamin C is not a myth, its just it doesnt prevent colds it does help you recover faster

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  17. 5pecular said:

    God this video is full of misinformation

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  18. Jeff Miller said:

    when did they think there were only 5 billion cells? long time ago, i bet, like mid 19th century.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  19. Mitchell Whitehead said:

    Awesome video brother. I can't believe I found this a 2:45 A.M.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  20. CityLove83 said:

    This is why anti vaxxers exist! So much false info!

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  21. 66holt said:

    dude does water really freeze at 0 degrees ?? , there is super cooled water that stays liquid until disturbed , ie tap or flick , THEN it freezes

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  22. Barbara Houk said:

    I will not do business with patron. Get a pobox. I do not have much to donate and I am not about to share it with a censorship organization.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  23. sbjkd said:

    I did a science today. I put it into a white and brown plastic jar and dropped it off at a path lab. I’ll get the results in two days. If I do more and don’t collect it, am I still doing sciences?

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  24. Kio Kurashi said:

    So technically, apart from a little bit when you poop, you are still mostly microbs. Therefor, the shirt is true.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  25. Ken Webster said:

    The irony is that Popeye never eats the can.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  26. kyou42 said:

    I'd buy the correct-but-less-catchy shirt.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  27. handlemybiz said:

    39 trillion > 37.2 trillion. The shirt isn't wrong. And won't the extra sugar give kids bodies the energy needed to stay awake when without the extra sugar or carbs, they would probably fall asleep? Like getting gas for your car. If you don't get gas when your tank is low, you'll have to stop. Once you refill your car with sugar, you can drive more.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  28. handlemybiz said:

    I think this was a plan to make everyone watch every single It's Okay to be Smart video and triple check the sources 😂

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  29. Uncle Creepy said:

    Wait, some clickbait video on YouTube is NOT where I should be getting my knowledge? Next you’re going to tell me not to listen to Buzzfeed news.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  30. Uncle Creepy said:

    One of the biggest problems are people quoting non-peer reviews science journals. One guy did a study to see how fake information could be passed on as true scientific information. One step was to publish his fake information in a non-peer reviewed journal, then it got picked up by “reporters” that don’t bother checking sources and it got passed along social media as true so much so that some tv stations picked up the story.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  31. Coacervate Droplet said:

    As a scientist I would say that the solution is for scientists to cite original sources. Thats called good science

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  32. originalsuki said:

    The cake IS a lie.
    That caught me off guard. NIce

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  33. lemonadecupcakes said:

    I am a teacher and I can vouch that kids don't get hyper because of sugar intake, it's more that they get hyper and excited if a party is going on. HOWEVER– they DO get more aggressive/ impatient. Playing large motor activities can help. That is why Valentine parties are harder to cope with than Halloween, because kids are normally more able to go to the playground in October than in February due to inclement weather. But it's true, a kid will get just as 'hyper' at a party with only fruit, veggies, cheese and crackers as one with cookies and cupcakes. You just get more conflict later on with the latter.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  34. Sharif Al Humaid said:

    The WW2 progoganda that carrots improve eyesight should to be included in the list.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  35. Hack Saw said:

    Okay, here's my question: What percentage of "Common knowledge" is wrong in a substantial way?

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  36. James Burney said:

    To lazy to click the next video. I listen to these in the background while working.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  37. Moondust2365 said:

    Apparently, it's only 5 debunks, plus or minus depending on which of the non-main ones you count or which ones you divide into two. If you count the one about Popeye, and separate the human and microbe cellcount from the ratio count, you get 7 debunks. If you separate the human cell count from the microbe cell count, 8 debunks.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  38. Melanie RideThePhoenixCrew said:

    I would totally buy that updated microbe t-shirt.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  39. AdHocFuture said:

    I just replaced old wrong knowledge with correct knowledge. I was military. I have always since my military days known that most of my heat escapes thru my head. Well, now I know that is not so. The answer is so obvious that it's a wonder I never realized it before. I know how layering works to keep warm, or do I?

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  40. Joshua Zuellig said:

    Disagree: I would buy that second microbe shirt!

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  41. Maverick Hargrave said:

    Everyone knows that you should give Ritalin to hyperactive children…
    Or, should you?
    *VSauce music starts*

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  42. Rizka Sanggar Darmawan said:

    eh wait, it's been 6 years already??

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  43. ProductBasement said:

    So no one thought to check the nutritional facts label on a can of spinach?

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  44. Michael Harmon said:

    Thanks for confusing me even more.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  45. Muzza C said:

    I thought the claim was that there is more microbial DNA in your body than your own, which is still true, given than a huge number of our cells – e.g. red blood cells – have no DNA.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  46. Jonny RheQue said:

    The scientific term for this is "mea culpa".

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  47. David Rust said:

    I would LOVE to know about the source to the scientific myth that glass is a liquid that flows very, very slowly. This was told to me by numerous teachers throughout my youth! They even showed us, on a field trip, an old shack out in the woods, where the glass in the window appeared to have "flowed" out of its frame.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  48. Mark Zambelli said:

    Ok… so how does cooking your spinach affect the bio-available Fe?… I was taught that spinach ONLY became an iron 'superfood' once cooked and that made it an oddity in the world of green-veggies as most green-leaf veggies don't have their iron locked-up behind the 'Rhubarb-Defense' of Oxalic-Acid-Sequestration… and to state parrot-fashion—any of YOUR comments will be (required, expected and) welcomed in the comments section.
    Regards and best wishes, Mark.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  49. Herbert Gearing said:

    Sadly most of our science is not scientific anymore. Anything with the prefix "theoretical" is subject to being completely nonsense given future experimental results. Science has become a religion that defends its weak foundations as ferociously as any other religion.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  50. Marco Ragni said:

    What you said about vitamin C is not true. There have been many studies demonstrating that high doses of vitamin c can prevent and help with many deseases…to be honest It seems like the majority of you 'science guys' at least here on the web don't really think your own thoughts and never spend time looking at the actual evidence from both sides… I suspect that just like you published that video about microbes becouse you had read somewhere about it, you are publishing this video now with absolute no independent double checking of your sources because you have read another article somewhere else. and that being said guys, do look into the evidence advocating the use of megadoses of vitamin c… they are pretty amazing. And if you come across studies that claim to disprove its efficacy please, look at the dosage used…youll see that 90% of times they are using less than a gram of vit c.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  51. pateralus9 said:

    9:03 Can we please get this shirt made available ASAP?!

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  52. Aaron Van Meter said:

    "enlightenment is a destructive process." to be enlightened you must remove all misconceptions, assumptions, and deceptions.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  53. Brian D said:

    If your children are hyperactive, it's due to a lack of park.

    Fact. Taking children to the park for over an hour and putting them to bed before 7pm with a consistent bedtime process that includes book reading, results in awesome children. Prove me wrong!

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  54. Matej Mahkovic said:

    How is 8 glasses of water per day a myth? Beside a "glass" being an idiotic unit of measurement, an average glass holds ~250ml so that equals 2 liters. That is about right (even a little low) for a moderately active adult living in mild climate, provided you get some additional water from food. Of course it doesn't need to be pure water, any drink counts with few exceptions (caffeinated drinks, alcohol, …).

    http://www.nationalacademies.org/hmd/Reports/2004/Dietary-Reference-Intakes-Water-Potassium-Sodium-Chloride-and-Sulfate.aspx

    https://www.nap.edu/read/10925/chapter/1

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  55. MegaMGstudios said:

    It's okay to be wrong

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  56. Jurjen Bos said:

    Great video! Thorough and interesting treatment of those myths.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  57. Pete Nolin said:

    Liked and shared and subscribed based on this video. Wish I could give you two more thumbs up. Nice job.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  58. Charles Woodruff said:

    This is how god myths are created.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  59. Audrey R said:

    Classical music doesn’t make you smarter or help you retain information

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  60. lamepos said:

    Wikipedia is the only organization I regularly donate to. It may not be perfect, but there's really nothing else like it. If wikipedia were to disappear than even more knowledge would disappear behind paywalls. I believe information and knowledge belongs to no one.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  61. Rui Pereira said:

    Ffffizz….cabumm…patreon

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  62. Sonja Morrison said:

    Good men own up. Well done, son.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  63. FindLiberty said:

    D.A.R.P.A. will police the Internet to identify all the fake news so that Google, Facebook and YouTube can bury* popular alt news search results.
    You'll conveniently find what corporations only want you to know. It's driven by power and money, not about science or truth. [lol, global warming!]

    *like with a shovel.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  64. Sonja Morrison said:

    Peer review needs a peer review, then an audit

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  65. The People of Earth said:

    Best urban myth

    Earth is flat, convex, cube, anything but a globe.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  66. kiraleskirales said:

    Actually water freeze at 0 Celsius bcs is the definition of 0 celsius

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  67. Mite nn said:

    What about skin bacteria?

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  68. Janice MacEachern said:

    Oh my! I'm way behind! I've been watching old SciShows with you on it! Hmm…flu=binge watching. I don't think I need to find the source of that fact!

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  69. Ahmad Mohsen said:

    My life is a lie 😅😅

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  70. Big daddy Shark said:

    I watched Rocky running out of the portable potty like 20 times in a row. I was not prepared for it.

    September 10, 2019
    Reply
  71. Inner Vigilance said:

    Yeah, we're wrong about lots of stuff.

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  72. saibotacinom said:

    I freaking love the fitting humour and quirky comments you make kms

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  73. SG Roadie said:

    I guess males will have more cells in the body – what is the number of cells in one ejaculation worth of sperm?

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  74. j e said:

    We still have more microbes then!

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  75. livefastdieyoung26 said:

    Investigate 9/11!

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  76. Clemmons West said:

    Fake News…I’ve seen time and time again what sugar does to kids

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  77. jerlands said:

    umm… something doesn't look right here… see the following…

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  78. cj dee said:

    What about blood being blue until it is outside the body? A lot of people still think that.

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  79. jerlands said:

    I think this guy is an idiot.. spreading his simple crap…

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  80. Talos Thoren said:

    You should mention alpha wolves. It’s common knowledge that is disproven.

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  81. SuperVstech said:

    But… microbes aren’t JUST in the colon… armpits, hair, feet, etc…

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  82. Peter Schmidt said:

    So…. what about all the microbes outside of your colon? Also technically, mitochondria are microbes (they have their own DNA) and they're found in each of your cells. So at the very least, that would mean 2/3 of you is microbes.

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  83. Jordan Forsgren said:

    I don’t care about metric

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  84. Gillian Orley said:

    The problem is that people don’t THINK critically about what they hear other people say. I mean, one should be immediately skeptical of a claim as ridiculous as microbes in and on our bodies outnumbering our own cells by 10 to 1. I mean, how would that even work?

    If you hear something and think, “That’s incredible,” well, it probably IS. Question it.

    What have you got to lose?

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  85. Always Down For A Manifesto said:

    Science is just the best. You are awesome!

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  86. Algo+codehawk said:

    poop

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  87. MakeMeThinkAgain said:

    Are you really ignoring all the bacteria on your skin and other places?

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  88. Cameron Russell said:

    um, freezing and boiling points are probably a wee bit pressure dependent…

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  89. Arngeir said:

    And of course there are still people who will lynch people for advocating modern science in favor of ancient fairy tales.

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  90. 510tadashi said:

    Dr.Luckey is A) wearing his obi(belt) incorrectly. The obi is meant to hold the kimono closed, but under the hakama (pants); B) wearing his katana upside down.
    Seems his papers aren't the only thing to suffer under-researching.😒😒

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  91. SecretLars said:

    7:22 We also have microbes on our skin, nasopharynx, nasal cavity, sputum (otherwise you wouldn't holes in your teeth), hair, urinary tract and the appendix.
    Just using the colon for a calculation is like just using the brain to calculate how many nerves a human body has.

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  92. Bob Hart said:

    Flushing sound from a port a potty?

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  93. Brenden Goring said:

    Dank

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  94. B Rabbit said:

    You know, I really appreciate when u guys(youtubers) admit that you gave us bad information in previous videos and admit that you were wrong.

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  95. erkut ziya sivrikaya said:

    On internet porn is free but science is not… :/

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  96. Daniel Slack said:

    I counted 6 debunks, unless you count debunking sort of peer-review.

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  97. Melanie David said:

    Cool! When I was writing a paper, I tracked the multiple references to a paper that "proved birds do not have language". I read the original study. It was horribly designed and their conclusions reached way further than the "evidence" should have allowed.

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  98. fuckfannyfiddlefart said:

    Science that isn't open is useless!

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  99. Cypresssina said:

    I dunno, I think that shirt is the 💩

    September 11, 2019
    Reply
  100. Maggie ZM said:

    There are also many microbes living on our skin, though! What about them?

    September 11, 2019
    Reply

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